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Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors and arterial stiffness in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.
J Hypertens 2007; 25(5):1009-20JH

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

This study aimed to investigate whether the clustering of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with stiffness of central and peripheral arterial segments; whether these associations are similar in men and women; and whether insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation mediate any such associations.

BACKGROUND

Increased arterial stiffness may explain, at least in part, the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risk associated with the MetS. However, the mechanisms linking the MetS to an increased arterial stiffness are incompletely understood, and gender differences may exist.

METHODS

Cross-sectional analyses of data on 313 young men and women (mean age 23 years) from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Subjects were categorized according to the number of traits of the MetS; in addition a continuous MetS score was calculated. Arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) in three arterial segments using a non-invasive optical method.

RESULTS

The prevalence of the MetS was similar for men (10.6%) and women (10.5%). After adjustment for potential confounders and other cardiovascular risk factors, PWV of the three arterial segments investigated increased with increasing traits of the MetS in women only. Women with the MetS, as compared to those without risk factors of the syndrome, had greater PWV of the aorto-iliac (+14.0%, P = 0.016), the aorto-radial (+13.2%, P = 0.010) and aorto-dorsalis pedis (+11.8%, P = 0.011) segments. A great deal (up to 75%) of the association between the MetS and aortic-iliac PWV was mediated by heart rate, inflammation markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen] and insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], whereas these variables did not explain much of the association between the MetS and PWV of the peripheral segments.

CONCLUSIONS

Young women with the MetS show increased stiffness of peripheral and central arteries, a mechanism that may explain their increased cardiovascular risk. Low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and sympathetic activation explain much of the adverse impact of the MetS on central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment (KEMTA), Maastricht, The Netherlands. i.ferreira@epid.unimaas.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17414665

Citation

Ferreira, Isabel, et al. "Clustering of Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors and Arterial Stiffness in Young Adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project." Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 5, 2007, pp. 1009-20.
Ferreira I, Boreham CA, Twisk JW, et al. Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors and arterial stiffness in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. J Hypertens. 2007;25(5):1009-20.
Ferreira, I., Boreham, C. A., Twisk, J. W., Gallagher, A. M., Young, I. S., Murray, L. J., & Stehouwer, C. D. (2007). Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors and arterial stiffness in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Journal of Hypertension, 25(5), pp. 1009-20.
Ferreira I, et al. Clustering of Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors and Arterial Stiffness in Young Adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. J Hypertens. 2007;25(5):1009-20. PubMed PMID: 17414665.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors and arterial stiffness in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. AU - Ferreira,Isabel, AU - Boreham,Colin A, AU - Twisk,Jos W R, AU - Gallagher,Alison M, AU - Young,Ian S, AU - Murray,Liam J, AU - Stehouwer,Coen D A, PY - 2007/4/7/pubmed PY - 2007/6/26/medline PY - 2007/4/7/entrez SP - 1009 EP - 20 JF - Journal of hypertension JO - J. Hypertens. VL - 25 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether the clustering of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with stiffness of central and peripheral arterial segments; whether these associations are similar in men and women; and whether insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation mediate any such associations. BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness may explain, at least in part, the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risk associated with the MetS. However, the mechanisms linking the MetS to an increased arterial stiffness are incompletely understood, and gender differences may exist. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of data on 313 young men and women (mean age 23 years) from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Subjects were categorized according to the number of traits of the MetS; in addition a continuous MetS score was calculated. Arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) in three arterial segments using a non-invasive optical method. RESULTS: The prevalence of the MetS was similar for men (10.6%) and women (10.5%). After adjustment for potential confounders and other cardiovascular risk factors, PWV of the three arterial segments investigated increased with increasing traits of the MetS in women only. Women with the MetS, as compared to those without risk factors of the syndrome, had greater PWV of the aorto-iliac (+14.0%, P = 0.016), the aorto-radial (+13.2%, P = 0.010) and aorto-dorsalis pedis (+11.8%, P = 0.011) segments. A great deal (up to 75%) of the association between the MetS and aortic-iliac PWV was mediated by heart rate, inflammation markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen] and insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], whereas these variables did not explain much of the association between the MetS and PWV of the peripheral segments. CONCLUSIONS: Young women with the MetS show increased stiffness of peripheral and central arteries, a mechanism that may explain their increased cardiovascular risk. Low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and sympathetic activation explain much of the adverse impact of the MetS on central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness. SN - 0263-6352 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17414665/Clustering_of_metabolic_syndrome_risk_factors_and_arterial_stiffness_in_young_adults:_the_Northern_Ireland_Young_Hearts_Project_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e3280a94e76 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -