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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and activation during lens development.
Mol Vis. 2007 Mar 26; 13:418-30.MV

Abstract

PURPOSE

Regulation of lens development involves an intricate interplay between growth factor (e.g. FGF and TGFbeta) and extracellular matrix (ECM) signaling pathways. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays key roles in transmitting ECM signals by integrins. In this study, we delineated patterns of FAK expression and tyrosine phosphorylation (Y397) in the developing lens and investigated its regulation by FGF2. We also examined FAK expression and activation during disrupted fiber differentiation in mice expressing a dominant-negative TGFbeta receptor.

METHODS

FAK expression and activation (phosphorylation on Y397) was studied in embryonic and postnatal rodent lenses by in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. Rat lens explants were used to investigate the effects of FGF2 on FAK expression and activation. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to examine FAK expression and phosphorylation in transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative TGFbeta receptor.

RESULTS

FAK is widely expressed and phosphorylated during embryonic stages of lens morphogenesis and differentiation. However, in postnatal lenses its expression and activation becomes restricted to the posterior germinative zone and the transitional zone at the lens equator. While both NH2- and COOH-terminal antibodies revealed cytoplasmic and membrane-associated staining in lens cells, the NH2-terminal antibody also showed FAK was present in fiber cell nuclei. In vitro, FAK expression and phosphorylation on Y397 were increased by concentrations of FGF2 that initiate lens epithelial cell migration (10 ng/ml) and differentiation (50 ng/ml) but not proliferation (5 ng/ml). Moreover, reactivity for Y397 phosphorylated FAK is prominent in the nuclei of differentiating fibers both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption of TGFbeta-like signals by ectopic expression of a dominant-negative TGFbeta receptor (TbetaRII(D/N)) results in abnormal lens fiber differentiation in transgenic mice. While FAK expression is initiated normally in the posterior germinative zone of TbetaRII(D/N) transgenic lenses, as fiber differentiation proceeds, FAK becomes localized to a perinuclear compartment, decreases its association with the cytoskeleton and is poorly phosphorylated on Y(397).

CONCLUSIONS

FAK is widely expressed and activated during early lens morphogenesis. During secondary lens fiber differentiation, FAK is expressed and phosphorylated on Y397 as epithelial cells exit the cell cycle, initiate migration at the equator, and undergo differentiation in the transitional zone. During terminal fiber differentiation an NH2-terminal fragment of FAK, including Y397, is translocated to the nucleus. The expression, activation, and nuclear localization of FAK are regulated, at least partly, by FGF2. FAK activity and subcellular localization are also modulated by TGFbeta-like signals. In fiber cells of TbetaRII(D/N) transgenic lenses, FAK is abnormally retained in a perinuclear compartment, loses its association with the cytoskeleton, and is poorly phosphorylated. These data suggest that integrin signaling via FAK plays important roles during lens differentiation, mediated by FGFs and TGFbeta-superfamily signals.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17417603

Citation

Kokkinos, Maria I., et al. "Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Expression and Activation During Lens Development." Molecular Vision, vol. 13, 2007, pp. 418-30.
Kokkinos MI, Brown HJ, de Iongh RU. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and activation during lens development. Mol Vis. 2007;13:418-30.
Kokkinos, M. I., Brown, H. J., & de Iongh, R. U. (2007). Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and activation during lens development. Molecular Vision, 13, 418-30.
Kokkinos MI, Brown HJ, de Iongh RU. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Expression and Activation During Lens Development. Mol Vis. 2007 Mar 26;13:418-30. PubMed PMID: 17417603.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and activation during lens development. AU - Kokkinos,Maria I, AU - Brown,Heidi J, AU - de Iongh,Robbert U, Y1 - 2007/03/26/ PY - 2007/4/10/pubmed PY - 2007/4/26/medline PY - 2007/4/10/entrez SP - 418 EP - 30 JF - Molecular vision JO - Mol Vis VL - 13 N2 - PURPOSE: Regulation of lens development involves an intricate interplay between growth factor (e.g. FGF and TGFbeta) and extracellular matrix (ECM) signaling pathways. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays key roles in transmitting ECM signals by integrins. In this study, we delineated patterns of FAK expression and tyrosine phosphorylation (Y397) in the developing lens and investigated its regulation by FGF2. We also examined FAK expression and activation during disrupted fiber differentiation in mice expressing a dominant-negative TGFbeta receptor. METHODS: FAK expression and activation (phosphorylation on Y397) was studied in embryonic and postnatal rodent lenses by in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. Rat lens explants were used to investigate the effects of FGF2 on FAK expression and activation. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to examine FAK expression and phosphorylation in transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative TGFbeta receptor. RESULTS: FAK is widely expressed and phosphorylated during embryonic stages of lens morphogenesis and differentiation. However, in postnatal lenses its expression and activation becomes restricted to the posterior germinative zone and the transitional zone at the lens equator. While both NH2- and COOH-terminal antibodies revealed cytoplasmic and membrane-associated staining in lens cells, the NH2-terminal antibody also showed FAK was present in fiber cell nuclei. In vitro, FAK expression and phosphorylation on Y397 were increased by concentrations of FGF2 that initiate lens epithelial cell migration (10 ng/ml) and differentiation (50 ng/ml) but not proliferation (5 ng/ml). Moreover, reactivity for Y397 phosphorylated FAK is prominent in the nuclei of differentiating fibers both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption of TGFbeta-like signals by ectopic expression of a dominant-negative TGFbeta receptor (TbetaRII(D/N)) results in abnormal lens fiber differentiation in transgenic mice. While FAK expression is initiated normally in the posterior germinative zone of TbetaRII(D/N) transgenic lenses, as fiber differentiation proceeds, FAK becomes localized to a perinuclear compartment, decreases its association with the cytoskeleton and is poorly phosphorylated on Y(397). CONCLUSIONS: FAK is widely expressed and activated during early lens morphogenesis. During secondary lens fiber differentiation, FAK is expressed and phosphorylated on Y397 as epithelial cells exit the cell cycle, initiate migration at the equator, and undergo differentiation in the transitional zone. During terminal fiber differentiation an NH2-terminal fragment of FAK, including Y397, is translocated to the nucleus. The expression, activation, and nuclear localization of FAK are regulated, at least partly, by FGF2. FAK activity and subcellular localization are also modulated by TGFbeta-like signals. In fiber cells of TbetaRII(D/N) transgenic lenses, FAK is abnormally retained in a perinuclear compartment, loses its association with the cytoskeleton, and is poorly phosphorylated. These data suggest that integrin signaling via FAK plays important roles during lens differentiation, mediated by FGFs and TGFbeta-superfamily signals. SN - 1090-0535 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17417603/Focal_adhesion_kinase__FAK__expression_and_activation_during_lens_development_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -