Simultaneous determination of various pharmaceutical compounds in water by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.J Chromatogr A. 2007 Jun 22; 1154(1-2):205-13.JC
A solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 11 pharmaceutical residues (propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, meberverine, thioridazine, carbamazepine, tamoxifen, mecoprop, indomethacine, diclofenac, meclofenamic acid and monensin) in environmental water samples. The collision energy chosen for the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiment was optimised. A number of parameters that may affect the recovery of the pharmaceuticals, such as the type of SPE cartridges, eluents, as well as water properties including pH value, salinity and concentration of colloid and surfactant were investigated. It is shown that the Oasis HLB SPE cartridge produced the best recoveries of the target pharmaceuticals while methanol was efficient in eluting pharmaceuticals from SPE cartridges. The recovery of some target compounds was enhanced with increasing salinity, but reduced by increasing pH value, and unaffected by surfactant concentration (0-10 microg/l). The recovery of most compounds was slightly increased by the presence of colloids (0-10 mg/l), which however caused a reduction in recovery for sulfamethoxazole and meberverine. The optimised method was further verified by performing spiking experiments in river water and seawater matrices, with good recovery and reproducibility for all except two compounds. The established method was successfully applied to environmental water samples from East Sussex, UK, for the determination of the target pharmaceuticals.