Liver transplantation in the United States.Clin Transpl. 2005CT
Based on the data reported to the OPTN/UNOS Liver Transplant Registry between 1987-2005, we found: 1. The number of deceased-donor liver transplantations increased slowly each year, with most of the increase being in adult recipients. The number of LD transplants, on the other hand, decreased sharply after 2002, following 3 years of rapid increase from 1998-2001 in both pediatric and adult recipients. 2. The number of DD liver recipients with non-cholestatic liver diseases increased very quickly during the past 18 years. Malignant disease as a cause of end-stage liver disease increased after implementation of MELD in 2002. Among LD liver recipients, non-cholestatic disease increased sharply from 1998-2001, but decreased from 2002. Malignant diseases as a cause for LD transplants decreased after 2002. 3. Among pediatric recipients, LD transplants provided better 5-year graft survival rates than transplants from deceased donors; in contrast, LD transplants in adults had poorer graft survival rates than those from deceased donors. 4. The use of marginal donors, including older donors, HCV (+) donors, donation after cardiac death donors, and diabetic donors, increased in the past 18 years. HCV(+) livers transplanted into HCV(+) cirrhosis recipients had similar graft survival when compared with HCV(-) donor livers, whereas when they were transplanted into non-HCV cirrhosis patients, they had poorer graft survival (60% vs. 70% at 5 years, respectively). When livers from diabetic donors were transplanted into diabetic recipients, they had much poorer graft survival than transplants from non-diabetic donors (54% vs. 77% at 5 years, respectively). 5. Split and partial liver transplants had poorer 5-year graft survival rates (58% and 57%, respectively) than whole liver transplants (62%), but the difference was mainly due to poorer outcomes during the first posttransplant year. 6. PELD allocation has resulted in improved one- and 3-year graft survival rates among pediatric liver recipients. Among adults MELD-based allocation has resulted in better one-year survival rates. When comparing the different original diseases, only HCC patients showed better one- and 3-year graft survival rates after MELD. 7. Within one year after transplantation, primary non-function and infection were the major causes of graft failure. These decreased after 1996, but recurrent hepatitis has increased as a cause of graft failure. After one year, chronic rejection and infection had decreased, while hepatitis recurrence still increased. 8. Cardiovascular deaths and deaths from multiorgan failure that occurred within the first year after transplantation have increased since 1996, while deaths due to infections have decreased. After the first year, deaths from graft failure increased, while CVD and infections decreased.