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The epidemiology of adiposity and dementia.

Abstract

Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine gland in the body, yet only recently has its role in neurodegenerative disease been considered. Prospective population level evidence has emerged to show that both obesity and overweight, is associated with an increased risk of all cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and underlying neurodegenerative changes. Weight loss in late life however is associated with dementia, and those categorized as underweight are also at a greater risk of dementia. Given the current epidemic of obesity, and the expected age-related increase in dementia incidence, even a small association between these two diseases has far reaching public health implications. However, due to the effects of both AD-associated weight loss and age-related changes in body composition, there are methodological challenges in appropriately evaluating obesity as a risk factor for developing dementia. There is a need to take a 'life course approach' and to consider the role of risk factors prior to the onset of old age. Our work has shown that both obesity and overweight, as measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness, in middle-age are strongly associated with an increased risk of all cause dementia, Alzheimer disease & Vascular dementia, independent of the development of diabetes and cardiovascular-related morbidities. There is also value in assessing regional body shape distributions of adiposity, particular the role of abdominal obesity. Mechanistic pathways such as adipocyte secreted proteins and hormones, and inflammatory cytokines could explain the association between obesity and increased risk of dementia.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Etiology and Prevention, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612, USA. Rachel.Whitmer@kp.org

    Source

    Current Alzheimer research 4:2 2007 Apr pg 117-22

    MeSH

    Adiposity
    Body Weight
    Dementia
    Humans
    Obesity
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17430233

    Citation

    Whitmer, Rachel A.. "The Epidemiology of Adiposity and Dementia." Current Alzheimer Research, vol. 4, no. 2, 2007, pp. 117-22.
    Whitmer RA. The epidemiology of adiposity and dementia. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007;4(2):117-22.
    Whitmer, R. A. (2007). The epidemiology of adiposity and dementia. Current Alzheimer Research, 4(2), pp. 117-22.
    Whitmer RA. The Epidemiology of Adiposity and Dementia. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007;4(2):117-22. PubMed PMID: 17430233.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The epidemiology of adiposity and dementia. A1 - Whitmer,Rachel A, PY - 2007/4/14/pubmed PY - 2007/7/11/medline PY - 2007/4/14/entrez SP - 117 EP - 22 JF - Current Alzheimer research JO - Curr Alzheimer Res VL - 4 IS - 2 N2 - Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine gland in the body, yet only recently has its role in neurodegenerative disease been considered. Prospective population level evidence has emerged to show that both obesity and overweight, is associated with an increased risk of all cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and underlying neurodegenerative changes. Weight loss in late life however is associated with dementia, and those categorized as underweight are also at a greater risk of dementia. Given the current epidemic of obesity, and the expected age-related increase in dementia incidence, even a small association between these two diseases has far reaching public health implications. However, due to the effects of both AD-associated weight loss and age-related changes in body composition, there are methodological challenges in appropriately evaluating obesity as a risk factor for developing dementia. There is a need to take a 'life course approach' and to consider the role of risk factors prior to the onset of old age. Our work has shown that both obesity and overweight, as measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness, in middle-age are strongly associated with an increased risk of all cause dementia, Alzheimer disease & Vascular dementia, independent of the development of diabetes and cardiovascular-related morbidities. There is also value in assessing regional body shape distributions of adiposity, particular the role of abdominal obesity. Mechanistic pathways such as adipocyte secreted proteins and hormones, and inflammatory cytokines could explain the association between obesity and increased risk of dementia. SN - 1567-2050 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17430233/The_epidemiology_of_adiposity_and_dementia_ L2 - http://www.eurekaselect.com/77999/article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -