Trans-9, cis-11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.J Dairy Sci. 2007 May; 90(5):2211-8.JD
Under certain dietary situations, rumen biohydrogenation results in the production of unique fatty acids that inhibit milk fat synthesis. The first of these to be identified was trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), but others are postulated to contribute to diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD). Our objective was to examine the potential role of trans-9, cis-11 CLA in the regulation of milk fat. In a preliminary study, we used gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques to examine milk fat samples from a diet-induced MFD study and found that an increase in trans-9, cis-11 CLA corresponded to the decrease in milk fat yield. We investigated this further using a CLA enrichment of 9, 11 isomers to examine the biological effect of trans-9, cis-11 CLA on milk fat synthesis. Four rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment involving 5-d treatment periods and abomasal infusion of 1) ethanol (control), 2) a 9, 11 CLA mix (containing 32% trans-9, cis-11, 29% cis-9, trans-11, and 17% trans-9, trans-11), 3) a trans-9, trans-11 CLA supplement, and 4) a trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement (positive control). The trans-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplements were of high purity (>90%), and all supplements were infused at a rate to provide 5 g/d of the CLA isomer of interest. Milk yield and dry matter intake did not differ among treatments. Compared with the control treatment, milk fat yield was reduced by 15% for the 9, 11 CLA mixture and by 27% for the trans-10, cis-12 CLA treatment. We also found that trans-9, trans-11 CLA had no effect on milk fat yield, and previous research has shown that milk fat yield is unaltered when cows are infused with cis-9, trans-11 CLA. When all treatments were considered, results suggested that trans-9, cis-11 was the CLA isomer in the 9, 11 CLA mix responsible for the reduction in milk fat synthesis, although the magnitude was less than that observed for trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Interestingly, trans-9, trans-11 CLA altered the milk fat desaturase index, further demonstrating that alterations in desaturase can occur independently of effects on milk fat synthesis. Overall, our investigations identified that an increase in milk fat content of trans-9, cis-11 CLA was associated with diet-induced MFD and provided evidence of a role for this isomer in MFD based on the 15% reduction in milk fat yield with abomasal infusion of a CLA enrichment that supplied 5 g/d of trans-9, cis-11 CLA.