Anandamide and NADA bi-directionally modulate presynaptic Ca2+ levels and transmitter release in the hippocampus.Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun; 151(4):551-63.BJ
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Inhibitory CB(1) cannabinoid receptors and excitatory TRPV(1) vanilloid receptors are abundant in the hippocampus. We tested if two known hybrid endocannabinoid/endovanilloid substances, N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) and anandamide (AEA), presynapticaly increased or decreased intracellular calcium level ([Ca(2+)](i)) and GABA and glutamate release in the hippocampus.
Resting and K(+)-evoked levels of [Ca(2+)](i) and the release of [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]glutamate were measured in rat hippocampal nerve terminals.
NADA and AEA per se triggered a rise of [Ca(2+)](i) and the release of both transmitters in a concentration- and external Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, but independently of TRPV(1), CB(1), CB(2), or dopamine receptors, arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+)-currents, intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and fatty acid metabolism. AEA was recently reported to block TASK-3 potassium channels thereby depolarizing membranes. Common inhibitors of TASK-3, Zn(2+), Ruthenium Red, and low pH mimicked the excitatory effects of AEA and NADA, suggesting that their effects on [Ca(2+)](i) and transmitter levels may be attributable to membrane depolarization upon TASK-3 blockade. The K(+)-evoked Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+)-dependent transmitter release were inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of the CB(1) receptor agonist WIN55212-2; this action was sensitive to the selective CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251. However, in the low micromolar range, WIN55212-2, NADA and AEA inhibited the K(+)-evoked Ca(2+) entry and transmitter release independently of CB(1) receptors, possibly through direct Ca(2+) channel blockade.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
We report here for hybrid endocannabinoid/endovanilloid ligands novel dual functions which were qualitatively similar to activation of CB(1) or TRPV(1) receptors, but were mediated through interactions with different targets.