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Decreased risk of death from coronary heart disease amongst men with higher 'femininity' scores: a general population cohort study.
Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36(3):612-20IJ

Abstract

CONTEXT

At all ages men have higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) than women, although similar proportions of men and women eventually die of CHD. Gender differences in CHD incidence and mortality are often explained in relation to biological (hormonal) and behavioural risk factors (e.g. smoking), but psychological factors and broader social constructions of gender are rarely considered.

OBJECTIVE

To examine the relationship between measures of gender role orientation at baseline in 1988 and mortality from CHD over 17 years (to June 2005).

DESIGN

Prospective cohort study linked to national mortality reporting.

SETTING

Socially varied, mainly urban area centred on city of Glasgow in West Central Scotland, UK.

PARTICIPANTS

In total, 1551 participants (704 men and 847 women) aged 55 years took part in detailed interviews with nurses trained in survey methods in 1988. These included a wide range of measures of physical development and functioning, self reported health and health behaviour, personal and social circumstances and a measure of gender role orientation (yielding scores for 'masculinity' and 'femininity').

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Mortality from CHD up to June 2005 (88 CHD deaths in men; 41 CHD deaths in women).

RESULTS

After adjusting for smoking, binge drinking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, household income and psychological well-being, higher 'femininity' scores in men were associated with a lower risk of CHD death (hazards ratio per unit increase in 'femininity' score 0.65, 95% CIs 0.48-0.87, P = 0.004). No such relationship was observed amongst women. 'Masculinity' scores were unrelated to CHD mortality in either men or women.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that social constructions of gender influence the risk of ill health, here death from CHD. Men who are less able to identify themselves with characteristics identified as 'feminine' or expressive (who have a more limited stereotypically masculine self-image) may be at increased risk of coronary disease. Further research on the link between social constructions of gender and health is needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. k.hunt@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17440023

Citation

Hunt, Kate, et al. "Decreased Risk of Death From Coronary Heart Disease Amongst Men With Higher 'femininity' Scores: a General Population Cohort Study." International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 3, 2007, pp. 612-20.
Hunt K, Lewars H, Emslie C, et al. Decreased risk of death from coronary heart disease amongst men with higher 'femininity' scores: a general population cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36(3):612-20.
Hunt, K., Lewars, H., Emslie, C., & Batty, G. D. (2007). Decreased risk of death from coronary heart disease amongst men with higher 'femininity' scores: a general population cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(3), pp. 612-20.
Hunt K, et al. Decreased Risk of Death From Coronary Heart Disease Amongst Men With Higher 'femininity' Scores: a General Population Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36(3):612-20. PubMed PMID: 17440023.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Decreased risk of death from coronary heart disease amongst men with higher 'femininity' scores: a general population cohort study. AU - Hunt,Kate, AU - Lewars,Heather, AU - Emslie,Carol, AU - Batty,G David, Y1 - 2007/04/17/ PY - 2007/4/19/pubmed PY - 2007/11/14/medline PY - 2007/4/19/entrez SP - 612 EP - 20 JF - International journal of epidemiology JO - Int J Epidemiol VL - 36 IS - 3 N2 - CONTEXT: At all ages men have higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) than women, although similar proportions of men and women eventually die of CHD. Gender differences in CHD incidence and mortality are often explained in relation to biological (hormonal) and behavioural risk factors (e.g. smoking), but psychological factors and broader social constructions of gender are rarely considered. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between measures of gender role orientation at baseline in 1988 and mortality from CHD over 17 years (to June 2005). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study linked to national mortality reporting. SETTING: Socially varied, mainly urban area centred on city of Glasgow in West Central Scotland, UK. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1551 participants (704 men and 847 women) aged 55 years took part in detailed interviews with nurses trained in survey methods in 1988. These included a wide range of measures of physical development and functioning, self reported health and health behaviour, personal and social circumstances and a measure of gender role orientation (yielding scores for 'masculinity' and 'femininity'). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from CHD up to June 2005 (88 CHD deaths in men; 41 CHD deaths in women). RESULTS: After adjusting for smoking, binge drinking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, household income and psychological well-being, higher 'femininity' scores in men were associated with a lower risk of CHD death (hazards ratio per unit increase in 'femininity' score 0.65, 95% CIs 0.48-0.87, P = 0.004). No such relationship was observed amongst women. 'Masculinity' scores were unrelated to CHD mortality in either men or women. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that social constructions of gender influence the risk of ill health, here death from CHD. Men who are less able to identify themselves with characteristics identified as 'feminine' or expressive (who have a more limited stereotypically masculine self-image) may be at increased risk of coronary disease. Further research on the link between social constructions of gender and health is needed. SN - 0300-5771 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17440023/Decreased_risk_of_death_from_coronary_heart_disease_amongst_men_with_higher_'femininity'_scores:_a_general_population_cohort_study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ije/dym022 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -