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Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children's IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China.
Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Apr; 115(4):643-7.EH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Recently, in a cross-sectional study of 201 children in Araihazar, Bangladesh, exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water has been shown to lower the scores on tests that measure children's intellectual function before and after adjustment for sociodemographic features.

OBJECTIVES

We investigated the effects of As and fluoride exposure on children's intelligence and growth.

METHODS

We report the results of a study of 720 children between 8 and 12 years of age in rural villages in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. The children were exposed to As at concentrations of 142 +/- 106 microg/L (medium-As group) and 190 +/- 183 microg/L (high-As group) in drinking water compared with the control group that was exposed to low concentrations of As (2 +/- 3 microg/L) and low concentrations of fluoride (0.5 +/- 0.2 mg/L). A study group of children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride (8.3 +/- 1.9 mg/L) but low concentrations of As (3 +/- 3 microg/L) was also included because of the common occurrence of elevated concentrations of fluoride in groundwater in our study area. A standardized IQ (intelligence quotient) test was modified for children in rural China and was based on the classic Raven's test used to determine the effects of these exposures on children's intelligence. A standardized measurement procedure for weight, height, chest circumference, and lung capacity was used to determine the effects of these exposures on children's growth.

RESULTS

The mean IQ scores decreased from 105 +/- 15 for the control group, to 101 +/- 16 for the medium-As group (p < 0.05), and to 95 +/- 17 for the high-As group (p < 0.01). The mean IQ score for the high-fluoride group was 101 +/- 16 and significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.05). Children in the control group were taller than those in the high-fluoride group (p < 0.05); weighed more than the those in the high-As group (p < 0.05); and had higher lung capacity than those in the medium-As group (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Children's intelligence and growth can be affected by high concentrations of As or fluoride. The IQ scores of the children in the high-As group were the lowest among the four groups we investigated. It is more significant that high concentrations of As affect children's intelligence. It indicates that arsenic exposure can affect children's intelligence and growth.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Shanxi Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease, Linfen, 041000 Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China. sxdb@public.lf.sx.cnNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17450237

Citation

Wang, San-Xiang, et al. "Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water: Children's IQ and Growth in Shanyin County, Shanxi Province, China." Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 4, 2007, pp. 643-7.
Wang SX, Wang ZH, Cheng XT, et al. Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children's IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(4):643-7.
Wang, S. X., Wang, Z. H., Cheng, X. T., Li, J., Sang, Z. P., Zhang, X. D., Han, L. L., Qiao, X. Y., Wu, Z. M., & Wang, Z. Q. (2007). Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children's IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(4), 643-7.
Wang SX, et al. Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water: Children's IQ and Growth in Shanyin County, Shanxi Province, China. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(4):643-7. PubMed PMID: 17450237.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children's IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. AU - Wang,San-Xiang, AU - Wang,Zheng-Hui, AU - Cheng,Xiao-Tian, AU - Li,Jun, AU - Sang,Zhi-Ping, AU - Zhang,Xiang-Dong, AU - Han,Ling-Ling, AU - Qiao,Xiao-Yan, AU - Wu,Zhao-Ming, AU - Wang,Zhi-Quan, Y1 - 2007/01/09/ PY - 2006/04/17/received PY - 2006/10/03/accepted PY - 2007/4/24/pubmed PY - 2007/5/23/medline PY - 2007/4/24/entrez SP - 643 EP - 7 JF - Environmental health perspectives JO - Environ Health Perspect VL - 115 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Recently, in a cross-sectional study of 201 children in Araihazar, Bangladesh, exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water has been shown to lower the scores on tests that measure children's intellectual function before and after adjustment for sociodemographic features. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of As and fluoride exposure on children's intelligence and growth. METHODS: We report the results of a study of 720 children between 8 and 12 years of age in rural villages in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. The children were exposed to As at concentrations of 142 +/- 106 microg/L (medium-As group) and 190 +/- 183 microg/L (high-As group) in drinking water compared with the control group that was exposed to low concentrations of As (2 +/- 3 microg/L) and low concentrations of fluoride (0.5 +/- 0.2 mg/L). A study group of children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride (8.3 +/- 1.9 mg/L) but low concentrations of As (3 +/- 3 microg/L) was also included because of the common occurrence of elevated concentrations of fluoride in groundwater in our study area. A standardized IQ (intelligence quotient) test was modified for children in rural China and was based on the classic Raven's test used to determine the effects of these exposures on children's intelligence. A standardized measurement procedure for weight, height, chest circumference, and lung capacity was used to determine the effects of these exposures on children's growth. RESULTS: The mean IQ scores decreased from 105 +/- 15 for the control group, to 101 +/- 16 for the medium-As group (p < 0.05), and to 95 +/- 17 for the high-As group (p < 0.01). The mean IQ score for the high-fluoride group was 101 +/- 16 and significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.05). Children in the control group were taller than those in the high-fluoride group (p < 0.05); weighed more than the those in the high-As group (p < 0.05); and had higher lung capacity than those in the medium-As group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Children's intelligence and growth can be affected by high concentrations of As or fluoride. The IQ scores of the children in the high-As group were the lowest among the four groups we investigated. It is more significant that high concentrations of As affect children's intelligence. It indicates that arsenic exposure can affect children's intelligence and growth. SN - 0091-6765 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17450237/Arsenic_and_fluoride_exposure_in_drinking_water:_children's_IQ_and_growth_in_Shanyin_county_Shanxi_province_China_ L2 - https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/10.1289/ehp.9270?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -