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Longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults: the cardiovascular health study.
Arch Intern Med 2007; 167(8):802-7AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Prospective studies indicate that a single self-report of high depressive symptoms is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

METHODS

We tested whether a single report of high depressive symptoms, an increase in depressive symptoms, or persistently high depressive symptoms over time were associated with the development of diabetes in adults 65 years and older. Participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study completed the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) annually from 1989 to 1999. A single report of high depressive symptoms (CES-D score, >/=8), an increase in symptoms during follow-up (>/=5 from baseline), and persistently high symptoms (2 consecutive scores >/=8) were each studied in relation to incident diabetes, defined by initiation of diabetes control medications among participants who were free from diabetes at baseline (n = 4681).

RESULTS

The mean CES-D score at baseline was 4.5 (SD, 4.5). The incidence rate of diabetes was 4.4 per 1000 person-years. Following adjustment for baseline demographic characteristics and measures of physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, and C-reactive protein during follow-up, each measure of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with incident diabetes (high baseline CES-D score: hazard ratio, 1.6 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.3]; CES-D score increase: hazard ratio, 1.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.2]; and persistently high symptoms: hazard ratio, 1.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.3]).

CONCLUSION

Older adults who reported higher depressive symptoms were more likely to develop diabetes than their counterparts; this association was not fully explained by risk factors for diabetes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill 60611, USA. carnethon@northwestern.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17452543

Citation

Carnethon, Mercedes R., et al. "Longitudinal Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 8, 2007, pp. 802-7.
Carnethon MR, Biggs ML, Barzilay JI, et al. Longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(8):802-7.
Carnethon, M. R., Biggs, M. L., Barzilay, J. I., Smith, N. L., Vaccarino, V., Bertoni, A. G., ... Siscovick, D. (2007). Longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(8), pp. 802-7.
Carnethon MR, et al. Longitudinal Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Apr 23;167(8):802-7. PubMed PMID: 17452543.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. AU - Carnethon,Mercedes R, AU - Biggs,Mary L, AU - Barzilay,Joshua I, AU - Smith,Nicholas L, AU - Vaccarino,Viola, AU - Bertoni,Alain G, AU - Arnold,Alice, AU - Siscovick,David, PY - 2007/4/25/pubmed PY - 2007/5/18/medline PY - 2007/4/25/entrez SP - 802 EP - 7 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 167 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Prospective studies indicate that a single self-report of high depressive symptoms is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We tested whether a single report of high depressive symptoms, an increase in depressive symptoms, or persistently high depressive symptoms over time were associated with the development of diabetes in adults 65 years and older. Participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study completed the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) annually from 1989 to 1999. A single report of high depressive symptoms (CES-D score, >/=8), an increase in symptoms during follow-up (>/=5 from baseline), and persistently high symptoms (2 consecutive scores >/=8) were each studied in relation to incident diabetes, defined by initiation of diabetes control medications among participants who were free from diabetes at baseline (n = 4681). RESULTS: The mean CES-D score at baseline was 4.5 (SD, 4.5). The incidence rate of diabetes was 4.4 per 1000 person-years. Following adjustment for baseline demographic characteristics and measures of physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, and C-reactive protein during follow-up, each measure of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with incident diabetes (high baseline CES-D score: hazard ratio, 1.6 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.3]; CES-D score increase: hazard ratio, 1.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.2]; and persistently high symptoms: hazard ratio, 1.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.3]). CONCLUSION: Older adults who reported higher depressive symptoms were more likely to develop diabetes than their counterparts; this association was not fully explained by risk factors for diabetes. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17452543/Longitudinal_association_between_depressive_symptoms_and_incident_type_2_diabetes_mellitus_in_older_adults:_the_cardiovascular_health_study_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinte.167.8.802 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -