Hereditary dentin defects.J Dent Res. 2007 May; 86(5):392-9.JD
By the Shields classification, articulated over 30 years ago, inherited dentin defects are divided into 5 types: 3 types of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI), and 2 types of dentin dysplasia (DD). DGI type I is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with DGI. OI with DGI is caused, in most cases, by mutations in the 2 genes encoding type I collagen. Many genes are required to generate the enzymes that catalyze collagen's diverse post-translational modifications and its assembly into fibers, fibrils, bundles, and networks. Rare inherited diseases of bone are caused by defects in these genes, and some are occasionally found to include DGI as a feature. Appreciation of the complicated genetic etiology of DGI associated with bony defects splintered the DGI type I description into a multitude of more precisely defined entities, all with their own designations. In contrast, DD-II, DGI-II, and DGI-III, each with its own pattern of inherited defects limited to the dentition, have been found to be caused by various defects in DSPP (dentin sialophosphoprotein), a gene encoding the major non-collagenous proteins of dentin. Only DD-I, an exceedingly rare condition featuring short, blunt roots with obliterated pulp chambers, remains untouched by the revolution in genetics, and its etiology is still a mystery. A major surprise in the characterization of genes underlying inherited dentin defects is the apparent lack of roles played by the genes encoding the less-abundant non-collagenous proteins in dentin, such as dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), and secreted phosphoprotein-1, or osteopontin (SPP1, OPN). This review discusses the development of the dentin extracellular matrix in the context of its evolution, and discusses the phenotypes and clinical classifications of isolated hereditary defects of tooth dentin in the context of recent genetic data respecting their genetic etiologies.