Increases in expression of 14-3-3 eta and 14-3-3 zeta transcripts during neuroprotection induced by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in AF5 cells.J Neurosci Res 2007; 85(8):1724-33JN
The molecular mechanisms involved in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced cell death and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced neuroprotection were investigated in vitro with an AF5 neural progenitor cell line model. By microarray analysis, Ywhah, CK1, Hsp60, Pdcd 4, and Pdcd 7 were identified as being strongly regulated by both NMDA toxicity and THC neuroprotection. The 14-3-3 eta (14-3-3eta; gene symbol Ywhah) and 14-3-3 zeta (14-3-3zeta; gene symbol Ywhaz) transcripts were deceased by NMDA treatment and increased by THC treatment prior to NMDA, as measured by cDNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Other 14-3-3 isoforms were unchanged. Whereas up-regulation of 14-3-3zeta expression was observed 30 min after treatment with THC plus NMDA, down-regulation by NMDA alone was not seen until 16 hr after treatment. By Western blotting, THC increased 14-3-3 protein only in cells that were also treated with NMDA. Overexpression of 14-3-3eta or 14-3-3zeta by transient plasmid transfection increased 14-3-3 protein levels and decreased NMDA-induced cell death. These data suggest that increases in 14-3-3 proteins mediate THC-induced neuroprotection under conditions of NMDA-induced cellular stress.