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The relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes to the 15-year incidence of diabetes and hypertension: Beaver Dam Eye Study.
Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2006; 104:98-107TA

Abstract

PURPOSE

To examine the relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes mellitus to the 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

METHODS

A total of 3,402 persons 43 to 86 years of age without diabetes mellitus (1,879 without diabetes or hypertension) at the time of a baseline examination in 1988-1990 had follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, and/or 2003-2005. Diabetes mellitus was defined by a combination of history, serum glucose levels, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure >/=140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure >/=90 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medications. Retinopathy at baseline was determined by masked gradings of stereoscopic fundus photographs using standardized protocols.

RESULTS

Retinopathy was present in 7.3% of the nondiabetic persons in the cohort and 5.4% of the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive cohort at baseline. The 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes was 12.5% and of hypertension 54.1%. While controlling for age, persons with retinopathy were more likely to develop diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, P value: 1.70, 1.17-2.48, P = .005) and hypertension (1.62, 1.18-2.23, P = .003) than persons without retinopathy. While controlling for other risk factors (eg, blood pressure, glucose level, cardiovascular disease history), the associations of retinopathy with incident diabetes mellitus (1.35, 0.90-2.03, P = .15) and hypertension (1.48, 1.05-2.07, P = .02) became attenuated but remained statistically significant for hypertension. In stratified analyses, retinopathy was associated with incident diabetes in persons younger than 65 years (1.80, 1.12-2.89, P = .02)

CONCLUSIONS

While controlling for other risk factors, retinopathy in nondiabetic individuals is associated with the incidence of hypertension and, in younger persons, with the incidence of diabetes mellitus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17471330

Citation

Klein, Ronald, et al. "The Relationship of Retinopathy in Persons Without Diabetes to the 15-year Incidence of Diabetes and Hypertension: Beaver Dam Eye Study." Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 104, 2006, pp. 98-107.
Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. The relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes to the 15-year incidence of diabetes and hypertension: Beaver Dam Eye Study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:98-107.
Klein, R., Klein, B. E., Moss, S. E., & Wong, T. Y. (2006). The relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes to the 15-year incidence of diabetes and hypertension: Beaver Dam Eye Study. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, 104, pp. 98-107.
Klein R, et al. The Relationship of Retinopathy in Persons Without Diabetes to the 15-year Incidence of Diabetes and Hypertension: Beaver Dam Eye Study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:98-107. PubMed PMID: 17471330.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes to the 15-year incidence of diabetes and hypertension: Beaver Dam Eye Study. AU - Klein,Ronald, AU - Klein,Barbara E K, AU - Moss,Scot E, AU - Wong,Tien Y, PY - 2007/5/2/pubmed PY - 2007/6/15/medline PY - 2007/5/2/entrez SP - 98 EP - 107 JF - Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society JO - Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc VL - 104 N2 - PURPOSE: To examine the relationship of retinopathy in persons without diabetes mellitus to the 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: A total of 3,402 persons 43 to 86 years of age without diabetes mellitus (1,879 without diabetes or hypertension) at the time of a baseline examination in 1988-1990 had follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, and/or 2003-2005. Diabetes mellitus was defined by a combination of history, serum glucose levels, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure >/=140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure >/=90 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medications. Retinopathy at baseline was determined by masked gradings of stereoscopic fundus photographs using standardized protocols. RESULTS: Retinopathy was present in 7.3% of the nondiabetic persons in the cohort and 5.4% of the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive cohort at baseline. The 15-year cumulative incidence of diabetes was 12.5% and of hypertension 54.1%. While controlling for age, persons with retinopathy were more likely to develop diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, P value: 1.70, 1.17-2.48, P = .005) and hypertension (1.62, 1.18-2.23, P = .003) than persons without retinopathy. While controlling for other risk factors (eg, blood pressure, glucose level, cardiovascular disease history), the associations of retinopathy with incident diabetes mellitus (1.35, 0.90-2.03, P = .15) and hypertension (1.48, 1.05-2.07, P = .02) became attenuated but remained statistically significant for hypertension. In stratified analyses, retinopathy was associated with incident diabetes in persons younger than 65 years (1.80, 1.12-2.89, P = .02) CONCLUSIONS: While controlling for other risk factors, retinopathy in nondiabetic individuals is associated with the incidence of hypertension and, in younger persons, with the incidence of diabetes mellitus. SN - 1545-6110 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17471330/The_relationship_of_retinopathy_in_persons_without_diabetes_to_the_15_year_incidence_of_diabetes_and_hypertension:_Beaver_Dam_Eye_Study_ L2 - https://aosonline.org/assets/xactions/2006/1545-6110_v104_p098.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -