Transcriptional regulation of IL-8 by iron chelator in human epithelial cells is independent from NF-kappaB but involves ERK1/2- and p38 kinase-dependent activation of AP-1.J Cell Biochem. 2007 Dec 15; 102(6):1442-57.JC
We have shown that the bacterial iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFO), triggers inflammatory signals including the production of CXC chemokine IL-8, in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) by activating the ERK1/2 and p38 kinase pathways. In this study we investigated the mechanisms involved in IL-8 generation by DFO, focusing on the transcription factors involved and the roles of both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the transcription factor activation. Treatment of human epithelial HT-29 cells with DFO markedly up-regulated the expression of the essential components of the transcription factor AP-1 at a transcriptional level, while it minimally affected the expression of the NF-kappaB subunits. DFO also induced AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity in HT-29 cells, and this activity was further augmented by the wild-type c-Jun transfection. In contrast, the AP-1 activity by DFO was markedly decreased by the dominant-negative c-Jun transfection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that DFO increases the specific binding of AP-1 but not of NF-kappaB. Such AP-1 binding and transcriptional activities were blocked by the inhibitors of the ERK1/2 and p38 kinase pathways, suggesting that both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) lie upstream of AP-1. Besides its action on AP-1, DFO also induced the specific binding of other transcription factors such as CREB and Egr-1. In summary, our results indicate that iron chelator-induced IL-8 generation in IECs involves activation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinase and downstream activation of AP-1. A possible link between iron status and two additional transcription factors, that is, CREB and Egr-1, rather than NF-kappaB, was also suggested.