Nutrient intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.Nutr Cancer 2006; 56(2):149-57NC
In 1996-2004 a case-control study on nutrient intake, dietary constituents and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. In fact, Uruguay, and especially its northern provinces, which border Brazil, are high-risk areas. The study included 234 cases and 936 controls. The controls were hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic disease, which was not related to tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, and without recent changes in their diets. Controls were frequency matched to cases on age (10-yr intervals), sex, and residence (Montevideo and other provinces). Dietary constituents were energy adjusted using the residuals method and then categorized in quartiles according to the distribution of the controls. The final model included linoleic acid, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin A, monounsaturated fat, total carbohydrates, beta-carotene, and folate. The odds ratio (OR) for high intake of linoleic acid was 1.4 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.2-1.6), whereas lycopene displayed a strong protective effect (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.9). The possible role of these and other dietary constituents in esophageal carcinogenesis is discussed.