Oral administration of (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and (+)methamphetamine alters temperature and activity in rhesus macaques.Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 May; 87(1):11-9.PB
Emergency Department visits and fatalities in which (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or (+)methamphetamine (METH) are involved frequently feature unregulated hyperthermia. MDMA and METH significantly elevate body temperature in multiple laboratory species and, most importantly, can also produce unregulated and threatening hyperthermia in nonhuman primates. A majority of prior animal studies have administered drugs by injection whereas human consumption of "Ecstasy" is typically oral, an important difference in route of administration which may complicate the translation of animal data to the human condition.
To determine if MDMA and METH produce hyperthermia in monkeys following oral administration as they do when administered intramuscularly.
Adult male rhesus monkeys were challenged intramuscularly (i.m.) and per os (p.o.) with 1.78 or 5 mg/kg (+/-)MDMA and with 0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg (+)METH. Temperature and activity were monitored with a radiotelemetry system.
Oral administration of either MDMA or METH produced significant increases in body temperature. Locomotor activity was suppressed by MDMA and increased by METH following either route of administration.
The data show that the oral route of administration is not likely to qualitatively reduce the temperature increase associated with MDMA or METH although oral administration did slow the rate of temperature increase. It is further established that MDMA reduces activity in monkeys even after relatively high doses and oral administration.