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Quantitative magnetic resonance brain imaging in US army veterans of the 1991 Gulf War potentially exposed to sarin and cyclosarin.
Neurotoxicology. 2007 Jul; 28(4):761-9.N

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In March 1991, a munitions storage complex at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed, potentially exposing more than 100,000 US troops to low levels of the organophosphate nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. Little is known about the neurophysiological effects of low-dose exposure to sarin/cyclosarin in humans, although some research has indicated subtle but persistent neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in individuals exposed to sarin/cyclosarin at levels insufficient to produce obvious clinical symptoms. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of these changes are unclear. The current study examined the association between modeled estimates of sarin/cyclosarin exposure levels and volumetric measurements of gross neuroanatomical structures in 1991 Gulf War veterans with varying degrees of possible low-level sarin/cyclosarin exposure.

METHODS

Twenty-six GW-deployed veterans recruited from the Devens Cohort Study participated. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were acquired and analyzed using morphometric techniques, producing volumetric measurements of white matter, gray matter, right and left lateral ventricles, and cerebrospinal fluid. Volumetric data were analyzed using exposure estimates obtained from refined models of the 1991 Khamisiyah presumed exposure hazard area.

RESULTS

Binary comparisons of sarin/cyclosarin 'exposed' (N=13) and 'unexposed' (N=13) veterans revealed no differences in volumetric measurements of discrete brain tissues. However, linear trend analyses showed a significant association between higher levels of estimated sarin/cyclosarin exposure and both reduced white matter (adjusted parameter estimate=-4.64, p<0.0001) and increased right lateral ventricle (adjusted parameter estimate=.11, p=0.0288) and left lateral ventricle (adjusted parameter estimate=.13, p<0.0001) volumes.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest subtle but persistent central nervous system pathology in Gulf War veterans potentially exposed to low levels of sarin/cyclosarin and argue for further investigation of the long-term effects of low-dose sarin/cyclosarin exposures in humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Boston Environmental Hazards Research Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA. kristin.heaton@us.army.milNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17485118

Citation

Heaton, Kristin J., et al. "Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging in US Army Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War Potentially Exposed to Sarin and Cyclosarin." Neurotoxicology, vol. 28, no. 4, 2007, pp. 761-9.
Heaton KJ, Palumbo CL, Proctor SP, et al. Quantitative magnetic resonance brain imaging in US army veterans of the 1991 Gulf War potentially exposed to sarin and cyclosarin. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28(4):761-9.
Heaton, K. J., Palumbo, C. L., Proctor, S. P., Killiany, R. J., Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., & White, R. F. (2007). Quantitative magnetic resonance brain imaging in US army veterans of the 1991 Gulf War potentially exposed to sarin and cyclosarin. Neurotoxicology, 28(4), 761-9.
Heaton KJ, et al. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging in US Army Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War Potentially Exposed to Sarin and Cyclosarin. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28(4):761-9. PubMed PMID: 17485118.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Quantitative magnetic resonance brain imaging in US army veterans of the 1991 Gulf War potentially exposed to sarin and cyclosarin. AU - Heaton,Kristin J, AU - Palumbo,Carole L, AU - Proctor,Susan P, AU - Killiany,Ronald J, AU - Yurgelun-Todd,Deborah A, AU - White,Roberta F, Y1 - 2007/03/24/ PY - 2006/07/19/received PY - 2007/01/29/revised PY - 2007/03/09/accepted PY - 2007/5/9/pubmed PY - 2007/11/1/medline PY - 2007/5/9/entrez SP - 761 EP - 9 JF - Neurotoxicology JO - Neurotoxicology VL - 28 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: In March 1991, a munitions storage complex at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed, potentially exposing more than 100,000 US troops to low levels of the organophosphate nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. Little is known about the neurophysiological effects of low-dose exposure to sarin/cyclosarin in humans, although some research has indicated subtle but persistent neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in individuals exposed to sarin/cyclosarin at levels insufficient to produce obvious clinical symptoms. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of these changes are unclear. The current study examined the association between modeled estimates of sarin/cyclosarin exposure levels and volumetric measurements of gross neuroanatomical structures in 1991 Gulf War veterans with varying degrees of possible low-level sarin/cyclosarin exposure. METHODS: Twenty-six GW-deployed veterans recruited from the Devens Cohort Study participated. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were acquired and analyzed using morphometric techniques, producing volumetric measurements of white matter, gray matter, right and left lateral ventricles, and cerebrospinal fluid. Volumetric data were analyzed using exposure estimates obtained from refined models of the 1991 Khamisiyah presumed exposure hazard area. RESULTS: Binary comparisons of sarin/cyclosarin 'exposed' (N=13) and 'unexposed' (N=13) veterans revealed no differences in volumetric measurements of discrete brain tissues. However, linear trend analyses showed a significant association between higher levels of estimated sarin/cyclosarin exposure and both reduced white matter (adjusted parameter estimate=-4.64, p<0.0001) and increased right lateral ventricle (adjusted parameter estimate=.11, p=0.0288) and left lateral ventricle (adjusted parameter estimate=.13, p<0.0001) volumes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest subtle but persistent central nervous system pathology in Gulf War veterans potentially exposed to low levels of sarin/cyclosarin and argue for further investigation of the long-term effects of low-dose sarin/cyclosarin exposures in humans. SN - 0161-813X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17485118/Quantitative_magnetic_resonance_brain_imaging_in_US_army_veterans_of_the_1991_Gulf_War_potentially_exposed_to_sarin_and_cyclosarin_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-813X(07)00053-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -