Relevance of common carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque as risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007; 28(5):916-9AA
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
An increase in the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is generally considered an early marker of atherosclerosis. This cross-sectional study assessed the CCA-IMT and plaque score as vascular risk factors in patients with ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Brain MR imaging and carotid ultrasonography were performed in 133 subjects with type 2 diabetes. IMT was measured at both CCAs. Differences in the variables between case and control subjects were compared statistically. To determine the independent factors related to CCA-IMT and plaque score, we performed stepwise multiple regression analysis.
Sex, current smoking habit, history of hypertension, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels differed significantly between the case and control groups. CCA-IMT and plaque score in patients with diabetes and acute ischemic stroke were significantly greater than in patients with diabetes who were stroke-free. The crude odds ratios suggested that CCA-IMT and plaque score are risk factors of acute ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, when we adjusted for cerebrovascular risk factors, CCA-IMT and plaque score did not remain significantly associated with acute ischemic stroke.
Increased CCA-IMT and plaque score are associated with acute ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes. The higher CCA-IMT and plaque score found in ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes seem to be induced by cerebrovascular risk factors. Therefore, to prevent ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes, strict control of hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, and low HDL, together with monitoring of CCA-IMT and carotid plaque, may be important.