Dietary intake, serum hormones, muscle mass and strength during strength training in 49 - 73-year-old men.Int J Sports Med. 2007 Dec; 28(12):1070-6.IJ
Effects of dietary intake on serum hormones, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength during strength training were studied in two groups of men: 1) strength training + nutritional counseling (n = 22, 59.1 +/- 6.1 yrs), and 2) strength training (n = 23, 58.5 +/- 7.1 yrs). Both groups performed strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. Counseling increased carbohydrate (p < 0.01) and fiber intake (p < 0.001) and polyunsaturated/saturated fat-ratio (p < 0.05) and decreased fat intake (p < 0.01). Muscle strength and CSA increased by 16 - 20 % and by 5.4 - 5.9 % in both groups (p < 0.001). Changes in protein content of diet correlated with the changes in the acute postexercise concentrations of total (r = 0.64, p < 0.01) and free testosterone (r = 0.54, p < 0.05) after training in the counseling group. Moreover, changes in the free testosterone responses to heavy-resistance exercise correlated with the increases in the muscle CSA (r = 0.52, p < 0.05) in the counseling group. Serum basal testosterone/sex hormone-binding globulin-ratios correlated with the body mass normalized energy (kJ/kg: r = 0.54, p < 0.001), protein (g/kg: r = 0.42, p < 0.01) and fat (g/kg: r = 0.51, p < 0.01) intake in all participants during the training. The data indicate that protein and fat intake may influence serum testosterone concentrations and that the changes in exercise-induced testosterone responses may contribute to muscle mass development during strength training.