Color Doppler US of the scrotum.Radiographics. 1991 Nov; 11(6):941-57; discussion 958.R
Color Doppler ultrasonography (US) is an increasingly important tool in the evaluation of the scrotum, especially in acute scrotal disorders. With this modality, arterial flow is readily detected in the normal spermatic cord and testis but is not seen in the epididymis; venous flow is not seen anywhere in the normal scrotum. Scrotal inflammatory lesions appear as hypervascularity of the epididymis or testis, even though gray-scale findings may be normal or nonspecific. Testicular torsion is demonstrated by an absence or marked decrease in the number of visible vessels. Small tumors (less than 1.5 cm) are hypovascular, and larger tumors (greater than 1.5 cm) are hypervascular. The modality also demonstrates Valsalva maneuver-induced venous flow augmentation in varicoceles and altered flow in testicular tumors. Color Doppler US allows for evaluation of morphologic findings and perfusion and enables accurate diagnosis of most scrotal disorders.