Formation of hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins in Grenache wines: precursor levels and evolution during aging.J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 13; 55(12):4883-8.JA
Grenache red wines were produced following three different winemaking techniques, that is, small-scale standard experimental wines and industrial-scale wines by both double-mash fermentation and fermentation in Ganimede vats. Wines were analyzed for their color properties, as well as the anthocyanin, flavonol, hydroxycinnamic acid, and pyranoanthocyanin profiles following alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. The evolution of pyranoanthocyanins and their corresponding precursors in the experimental wines was monitored at 6 and 10 months of aging. Wines produced by double-mash fermentation exhibited superior color properties compared to Ganimede wines and the experimental red wines, due to better extraction of flavonols and anthocyanins as well as a lower degree of polymerization. Pyranoanthocyanin formation varied within the different classes of pigments. Vitisins A and B were formed only during alcoholic fermentation. Pinotin A (i.e., the reaction product from malvidin 3-glucoside and caffeic acid) formation took place only during the aging process, whereas formation of hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins derived from p-coumaric and ferulic acid followed two different pathways, that is, an enzymatically assisted production during fermentation and a pure chemical formation during aging.