Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Obesity and prostate cancer: epidemiology and clinical implications.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Both obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) are epidemic in Western society. Although initial epidemiological data appeared conflicting, recent studies have clarified the association between obesity and PCa. Therefore, we sought to review the epidemiological data linking obesity and PCa with an emphasis on the clinical implications and how to improve outcomes among obese men.

METHODS

A PubMed search using the keywords "prostate cancer" and "obesity" was performed. Relevant articles and references were reviewed for data on the association between obesity and PCa.

RESULTS

Recent data suggest obesity is associated with reduced risk of nonaggressive disease but increased risk of aggressive disease. This observation may be explained in part by an inherent bias in our ability to detect PCa in obese men (lower PSA values and larger sized prostates, making biopsy less accurate for finding an existent cancer), which ultimately leads to increased risk of cancer recurrence after primary therapy and increased PCa mortality. Despite this detection bias potentially contributing to more aggressive cancers, multiple biological links also exist between obesity and PCa including higher estradiol, insulin, free IGF-1, and leptin levels, and lower free testosterone and adiponectin levels, all of which may promote more aggressive cancers.

CONCLUSIONS

The association between obesity and PCa is complex. Emerging data suggest obesity increases the risk of aggressive cancer, while simultaneously decreasing the risk of more indolent disease. This is likely driven by both "biological" and "nonbiological" causes. Simple changes in clinical practice patterns can reduce the impact of nonbiological causes and may help improve PCa outcomes among obese men.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Surgery, Veterans Administration Medical Center Durham, Durham, NC, USA.

    Source

    European urology 52:2 2007 Aug pg 331-43

    MeSH

    Body Mass Index
    Humans
    Male
    Obesity
    Prevalence
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Quality of Life
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17507151

    Citation

    Buschemeyer, W Cooper, and Stephen J. Freedland. "Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Epidemiology and Clinical Implications." European Urology, vol. 52, no. 2, 2007, pp. 331-43.
    Buschemeyer WC, Freedland SJ. Obesity and prostate cancer: epidemiology and clinical implications. Eur Urol. 2007;52(2):331-43.
    Buschemeyer, W. C., & Freedland, S. J. (2007). Obesity and prostate cancer: epidemiology and clinical implications. European Urology, 52(2), pp. 331-43.
    Buschemeyer WC, Freedland SJ. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Epidemiology and Clinical Implications. Eur Urol. 2007;52(2):331-43. PubMed PMID: 17507151.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Obesity and prostate cancer: epidemiology and clinical implications. AU - Buschemeyer,W Cooper,3rd AU - Freedland,Stephen J, Y1 - 2007/05/02/ PY - 2007/02/18/received PY - 2007/04/24/accepted PY - 2007/5/18/pubmed PY - 2007/9/28/medline PY - 2007/5/18/entrez SP - 331 EP - 43 JF - European urology JO - Eur. Urol. VL - 52 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Both obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) are epidemic in Western society. Although initial epidemiological data appeared conflicting, recent studies have clarified the association between obesity and PCa. Therefore, we sought to review the epidemiological data linking obesity and PCa with an emphasis on the clinical implications and how to improve outcomes among obese men. METHODS: A PubMed search using the keywords "prostate cancer" and "obesity" was performed. Relevant articles and references were reviewed for data on the association between obesity and PCa. RESULTS: Recent data suggest obesity is associated with reduced risk of nonaggressive disease but increased risk of aggressive disease. This observation may be explained in part by an inherent bias in our ability to detect PCa in obese men (lower PSA values and larger sized prostates, making biopsy less accurate for finding an existent cancer), which ultimately leads to increased risk of cancer recurrence after primary therapy and increased PCa mortality. Despite this detection bias potentially contributing to more aggressive cancers, multiple biological links also exist between obesity and PCa including higher estradiol, insulin, free IGF-1, and leptin levels, and lower free testosterone and adiponectin levels, all of which may promote more aggressive cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The association between obesity and PCa is complex. Emerging data suggest obesity increases the risk of aggressive cancer, while simultaneously decreasing the risk of more indolent disease. This is likely driven by both "biological" and "nonbiological" causes. Simple changes in clinical practice patterns can reduce the impact of nonbiological causes and may help improve PCa outcomes among obese men. SN - 0302-2838 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17507151/Obesity_and_prostate_cancer:_epidemiology_and_clinical_implications_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0302-2838(07)00664-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -