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Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Reports from several studies have suggested that carotenoids, and in particular lycopene, could be prostate cancer-preventive agents. This has stimulated extensive laboratory and clinical research, as well as much commercial and public enthusiasm. However, the epidemiologic evidence remains inconclusive.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We investigated the association between prediagnostic serum carotenoids (lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin) and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a multicenter study designed to examine methods of early detection and risk factors for cancer. The study included 692 incident prostate cancer cases, diagnosed 1 to 8 years after study entry, including 270 aggressive cases, with regional or distant stage (n = 90) or Gleason score >or=7 (n = 235), and 844 randomly selected, matched controls. As study participants were selected from those who were assigned to annual standardized screening for prostate cancer, results are unlikely to be biased by differential screening, a circumstance that is difficult to attain under non-trial conditions.

RESULTS

No association was observed between serum lycopene and total prostate cancer [odds ratios (OR), 1.14; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.82-1.58 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.28] or aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.62-1.57 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.433). beta-Carotene was associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.03-2.72 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.13); in particular, regional or distant stage disease (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.37-7.31 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.02); other carotenoids were not associated with risk.

CONCLUSION

In this large prospective study, high serum beta-carotene concentrations were associated with increased risk for aggressive, clinically relevant prostate cancer. Lycopene and other carotenoids were unrelated to prostate cancer. Consistent with other recent publications, these results suggest that lycopene or tomato-based regimens will not be effective for prostate cancer prevention.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, P.O. Box 19024, 1100 Fairview Avenue North M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. upeters@fhcrc.org

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    MeSH

    Aged
    Anticarcinogenic Agents
    Carotenoids
    Case-Control Studies
    Confidence Intervals
    Humans
    Linear Models
    Logistic Models
    Lycopene
    Male
    Mass Screening
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Assessment
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    beta Carotene

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17507623

    Citation

    Peters, Ulrike, et al. "Serum Lycopene, Other Carotenoids, and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Nested Case-control Study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 16, no. 5, 2007, pp. 962-8.
    Peters U, Leitzmann MF, Chatterjee N, et al. Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(5):962-8.
    Peters, U., Leitzmann, M. F., Chatterjee, N., Wang, Y., Albanes, D., Gelmann, E. P., ... Hayes, R. B. (2007). Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 16(5), pp. 962-8.
    Peters U, et al. Serum Lycopene, Other Carotenoids, and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Nested Case-control Study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(5):962-8. PubMed PMID: 17507623.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. AU - Peters,Ulrike, AU - Leitzmann,Michael F, AU - Chatterjee,Nilanjan, AU - Wang,Yinghui, AU - Albanes,Demetrius, AU - Gelmann,Edward P, AU - Friesen,Marlin D, AU - Riboli,Elio, AU - Hayes,Richard B, PY - 2007/5/18/pubmed PY - 2007/11/10/medline PY - 2007/5/18/entrez SP - 962 EP - 8 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 16 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Reports from several studies have suggested that carotenoids, and in particular lycopene, could be prostate cancer-preventive agents. This has stimulated extensive laboratory and clinical research, as well as much commercial and public enthusiasm. However, the epidemiologic evidence remains inconclusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the association between prediagnostic serum carotenoids (lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin) and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a multicenter study designed to examine methods of early detection and risk factors for cancer. The study included 692 incident prostate cancer cases, diagnosed 1 to 8 years after study entry, including 270 aggressive cases, with regional or distant stage (n = 90) or Gleason score >or=7 (n = 235), and 844 randomly selected, matched controls. As study participants were selected from those who were assigned to annual standardized screening for prostate cancer, results are unlikely to be biased by differential screening, a circumstance that is difficult to attain under non-trial conditions. RESULTS: No association was observed between serum lycopene and total prostate cancer [odds ratios (OR), 1.14; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.82-1.58 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.28] or aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.62-1.57 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.433). beta-Carotene was associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.03-2.72 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.13); in particular, regional or distant stage disease (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.37-7.31 for highest versus lowest quintile; P for trend, 0.02); other carotenoids were not associated with risk. CONCLUSION: In this large prospective study, high serum beta-carotene concentrations were associated with increased risk for aggressive, clinically relevant prostate cancer. Lycopene and other carotenoids were unrelated to prostate cancer. Consistent with other recent publications, these results suggest that lycopene or tomato-based regimens will not be effective for prostate cancer prevention. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17507623/Serum_lycopene_other_carotenoids_and_prostate_cancer_risk:_a_nested_case_control_study_in_the_prostate_lung_colorectal_and_ovarian_cancer_screening_trial_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17507623 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -