Biomonitoring of cyanobacterial blooms in Polish water reservoir and the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of selected cyanobacterial extracts.Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007; 20(1):48-65.IJ
Water pollution with toxic cyanobacterial blooms is a worldwide problem. Cyanobacteria species that mainly produce microcystins predominate in Polish water reservoirs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In our study, cyanobacterial blooms were monitored during summer of 2004 in the Sulejów reservoir. The concentration of microcystins in water and cyanobacterial cells were determined using liquid chromatography and immunobiotests, while the biological activity of microcystic cyanobacterial extracts was assessed using bacterial tests (SOS Chromotest, UMU test), the comet assay and micronucleus test with human lymphocytes.
It was revealed that cyanobacterial bloom was most intensive in mid August and lasted until the end of September. Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae dominated in the blooms. The highest concentration of microcystins in cyanobacterial cells was also observed at that time. The concentration of microcystins in water did not exceed 1 microg/l. All cyanobacterial extracts showed weak genotoxicity only for Escherichia coli PQ37. The cyanobacterial extracts prepared at the beginning of September were most toxic to human lymphocytes, the effective microcystin extracts (EC50) concentration was about two or three times lower compared to the other extracts. The level of DNA damage in lymphocytes after short exposure to microcystic extracts (3 and 6 h) was significantly higher than respective levels after longer exposure. The microcystins of cyanobacterial blooms induced a slight increase in micronuclei frequencies in human lymphocytes.
Phytoplankton biomass and the genotoxicity of massive cyanobacterial blooms should be assessed for eucariotic cells in the Sulejów reservoir to avoid the hazard induced by cyanobacterial blooms.