Characteristics of titania supported copper oxide catalysts for wet air oxidation of phenol.J Hazard Mater. 2007 Jul 31; 146(3):610-6.JH
Various techniques have been used to characterize the CuO(x)/TiO(2) catalysts with different copper loading. Surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution of the prepared catalysts were estimated from nitrogen adsorption isotherm. Temperature programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) experiments were performed to investigate the chemical state of the copper species. The chemical state of copper in the CuO(x)/TiO(2) catalysts varied with copper loading (1-25wt.%): highly dispersed Cu(2+) cluster for 1 and 5wt.%, and bulk CuO for 7-25wt.%. The activity and mineralization selectivity of the CuO(x)/TiO(2) catalysts increased with copper loading up to 20wt.%, and remained almost constant for higher copper loading. The optimum copper loading was 20wt.% for the wet air oxidation of phenol over the CuO(x)/TiO(2) catalysts in this work. The stability of the CuO(x)/TiO(2) catalysts with different copper loading was also studied with respect to carbonaceous deposits and copper leaching.