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Socioeconomic status as an independent predictor of physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: evidence from NHANES.
Prev Med. 2007 Jul; 45(1):35-40.PM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

C-reactive protein, homocysteine, cholesterol, and fibrinogen are known to vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Using a nationally representative study, we examined whether these factors vary independently of all other known risk factors, such as diet, exercise, and genetic predisposition.

METHODS

We analyzed the 1999-2002 National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey using logistic regression models.

RESULTS

We found that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol blood levels increase with income and educational attainment after controlling all known risk factors for elevated cholesterol (e.g., diet, exercise, and family history). Blood levels of C-reactive protein are inversely associated with income and education. Homocysteine blood levels are inversely associated with income even after controlling for blood folate level. A non-significant inverse relationship between homocysteine levels and educational attainment was also observed. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen were not significantly associated with income or education.

CONCLUSIONS

Levels of "good" (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol increase with income and education even after controlling for factors known to place people at risk of high cholesterol. Stress differences by social class may play a role.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. pm124@columbia.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17521717

Citation

Muennig, Peter, et al. "Socioeconomic Status as an Independent Predictor of Physiological Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence From NHANES." Preventive Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1, 2007, pp. 35-40.
Muennig P, Sohler N, Mahato B. Socioeconomic status as an independent predictor of physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: evidence from NHANES. Prev Med. 2007;45(1):35-40.
Muennig, P., Sohler, N., & Mahato, B. (2007). Socioeconomic status as an independent predictor of physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: evidence from NHANES. Preventive Medicine, 45(1), 35-40.
Muennig P, Sohler N, Mahato B. Socioeconomic Status as an Independent Predictor of Physiological Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence From NHANES. Prev Med. 2007;45(1):35-40. PubMed PMID: 17521717.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Socioeconomic status as an independent predictor of physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: evidence from NHANES. AU - Muennig,Peter, AU - Sohler,Nancy, AU - Mahato,Bisundev, Y1 - 2007/04/24/ PY - 2006/08/08/received PY - 2007/04/03/revised PY - 2007/04/12/accepted PY - 2007/5/25/pubmed PY - 2007/10/24/medline PY - 2007/5/25/entrez SP - 35 EP - 40 JF - Preventive medicine JO - Prev Med VL - 45 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein, homocysteine, cholesterol, and fibrinogen are known to vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Using a nationally representative study, we examined whether these factors vary independently of all other known risk factors, such as diet, exercise, and genetic predisposition. METHODS: We analyzed the 1999-2002 National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey using logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol blood levels increase with income and educational attainment after controlling all known risk factors for elevated cholesterol (e.g., diet, exercise, and family history). Blood levels of C-reactive protein are inversely associated with income and education. Homocysteine blood levels are inversely associated with income even after controlling for blood folate level. A non-significant inverse relationship between homocysteine levels and educational attainment was also observed. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen were not significantly associated with income or education. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of "good" (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol increase with income and education even after controlling for factors known to place people at risk of high cholesterol. Stress differences by social class may play a role. SN - 0091-7435 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17521717/Socioeconomic_status_as_an_independent_predictor_of_physiological_biomarkers_of_cardiovascular_disease:_evidence_from_NHANES_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091-7435(07)00173-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -