Codeine cough syrup use among African-American crack cocaine users.J Psychoactive Drugs. 2007 Mar; 39(1):97-102.JP
While studies show evidence of a clear problem with the prevalence of crack cocaine and codeine cough syrup use separately, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In an attempt to ascertain beyond anecdotal evidence, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study among 482 African-American crack users to investigate the differences between those who were concurrently codeine cough syrup users and those who were not codeine cough syrup users in Houston, Texas. Logistic regression indicated that codeine use was significantly associated with lower participant age and lower education; codeine cough syrup users were significantly more likely than nonusers to not have a main sexual partner. In addition, codeine users had significantly higher odds of ever trading sex for money, marijuana use, and fry use. These findings are important in determining the "cultural novelties" relative to crack and codeine use among younger African Americans.