Label-free detection of bacteria by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: comparison to surface plasmon resonance.Anal Chem. 2007 Jul 01; 79(13):4879-86.AC
The low but known risk of bacterial contamination has emerged as the greatest residual threat of transfusion-transmitted diseases. Label-free detection of a bacterial model, Escherichia coli, is performed using nonfaradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Biotinylated polyclonal anti-E. coli is linked to a mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold electrode through a strong biotin-neutravidin interaction. The binding of one antibody molecule for 3.6 neutravidin molecules is determined using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The detection limit of E. coli found by SPR is 10(7) cfu/mL. After modeling the impedance Nyquist plot of E. coli/anti-E. coli/mixed SAM/gold electrode for increasing concentrations of E. coli (whole bacteria or lysed bacteria), the main parameter that is modified is the polarization resistance RP. A sigmoid variation of RP is observed when the log concentration of bacteria (whole or lysed) increases. A concentration of 10 cfu/mL whole bacteria is detected by EIS measurements while 103 cfu/mL is detected for lysed E. coli.