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The association between food patterns and the metabolic syndrome using principal components analysis: The ATTICA Study.
J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107(6):979-87; quiz 997JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dietary habits have been associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.

OBJECTIVE

The associations between foods or food patterns and the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome were evaluated.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional survey.

SUBJECTS

During 2001 to 2002, 1,514 men (aged 18 to 87 years) and 1,528 women (aged 18 to 89 years) without any clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease were randomly enrolled, from the Attica region in Greece.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Dietary habits were evaluated using a semiquantitative, food frequency questionnaire. Characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (ie, blood pressure, waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were also measured.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Principal components analysis was applied to extract dietary patterns from 22 foods or food groups. Multivariate regression analysis evaluated the associations between the extracted dietary patterns and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome.

RESULTS

Six components were derived explaining 56% of the total variation in intake. Component 1 was characterized by the consumption of cereals, fish, legumes, vegetables, and fruits (explained variation 19.7%); component 2 was characterized by the intake of potatoes and meat (explained variation 11.7%), component 6 was characterized by alcohol intake (explained variation 4.8%), whereas the other components were mainly characterized by consumption of dairy and sweets. After adjusting for various confounders, component 1 was inversely associated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inversely with the likelihood of the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79 to 0.97), whereas components 2 and 6 were positively correlated with the previous indexes, and the likelihood of having the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21 and OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.33).

CONCLUSIONS

A dietary pattern that includes cereals, fish, legumes, vegetables, and fruits was independently associated with reduced levels of clinical and biological markers linked to the metabolic syndrome, whereas meat and alcohol intake showed the opposite results.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. d.b.panagiotakos@usa.netNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17524719

Citation

Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B., et al. "The Association Between Food Patterns and the Metabolic Syndrome Using Principal Components Analysis: the ATTICA Study." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 107, no. 6, 2007, pp. 979-87; quiz 997.
Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Skoumas Y, et al. The association between food patterns and the metabolic syndrome using principal components analysis: The ATTICA Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(6):979-87; quiz 997.
Panagiotakos, D. B., Pitsavos, C., Skoumas, Y., & Stefanadis, C. (2007). The association between food patterns and the metabolic syndrome using principal components analysis: The ATTICA Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107(6), pp. 979-87; quiz 997.
Panagiotakos DB, et al. The Association Between Food Patterns and the Metabolic Syndrome Using Principal Components Analysis: the ATTICA Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(6):979-87; quiz 997. PubMed PMID: 17524719.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The association between food patterns and the metabolic syndrome using principal components analysis: The ATTICA Study. AU - Panagiotakos,Demosthenes B, AU - Pitsavos,Christos, AU - Skoumas,Yannis, AU - Stefanadis,Christodoulos, PY - 2006/03/29/received PY - 2007/5/26/pubmed PY - 2007/7/4/medline PY - 2007/5/26/entrez SP - 979-87; quiz 997 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 107 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dietary habits have been associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The associations between foods or food patterns and the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome were evaluated. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: During 2001 to 2002, 1,514 men (aged 18 to 87 years) and 1,528 women (aged 18 to 89 years) without any clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease were randomly enrolled, from the Attica region in Greece. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary habits were evaluated using a semiquantitative, food frequency questionnaire. Characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (ie, blood pressure, waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were also measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Principal components analysis was applied to extract dietary patterns from 22 foods or food groups. Multivariate regression analysis evaluated the associations between the extracted dietary patterns and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Six components were derived explaining 56% of the total variation in intake. Component 1 was characterized by the consumption of cereals, fish, legumes, vegetables, and fruits (explained variation 19.7%); component 2 was characterized by the intake of potatoes and meat (explained variation 11.7%), component 6 was characterized by alcohol intake (explained variation 4.8%), whereas the other components were mainly characterized by consumption of dairy and sweets. After adjusting for various confounders, component 1 was inversely associated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and inversely with the likelihood of the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79 to 0.97), whereas components 2 and 6 were positively correlated with the previous indexes, and the likelihood of having the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21 and OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.33). CONCLUSIONS: A dietary pattern that includes cereals, fish, legumes, vegetables, and fruits was independently associated with reduced levels of clinical and biological markers linked to the metabolic syndrome, whereas meat and alcohol intake showed the opposite results. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17524719/The_association_between_food_patterns_and_the_metabolic_syndrome_using_principal_components_analysis:_The_ATTICA_Study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(07)00433-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -