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The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: measuring disease burden and costs.
Vaccine. 2007 Jun 28; 25(27):5086-96.V

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Despite preventive efforts, influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year in the United States (US). Vaccination strategies to reduce disease burden have been implemented. However, no previous studies have systematically estimated the annual economic burden of influenza epidemics, an estimate necessary to guide policy makers effectively.

OBJECTIVE

We estimate age- and risk-specific disease burden, and medical and indirect costs attributable to annual influenza epidemics in the United States.

METHODS

Using a probabilistic model and publicly available epidemiological data we estimated the number of influenza-attributable cases leading to outpatient visits, hospitalization, and mortality, as well as time lost from work absenteeism or premature death. With data from health insurance claims and projections of either earnings or statistical life values, we then estimated healthcare resource utilization associated with influenza cases as were their medical and productivity (indirect) costs in $2003.

RESULTS

Based on 2003 US population, we estimated that annual influenza epidemics resulted in an average of 610,660 life-years lost (undiscounted), 3.1 million hospitalized days, and 31.4 million outpatient visits. Direct medical costs averaged $10.4 billion (95% confidence interval [C.I.], $4.1, $22.2) annually. Projected lost earnings due to illness and loss of life amounted to $16.3 billion (C.I., $8.7, $31.0) annually. The total economic burden of annual influenza epidemics using projected statistical life values amounted to $87.1 billion (C.I., $47.2, $149.5).

CONCLUSIONS

These results highlight the enormous annual burden of influenza in the US. While hospitalization costs are important contributors, lost productivity from missed work days and lost lives comprise the bulk of the economic burden of influenza.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Immunization Service Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mail-Stop E-88, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. NMolinari@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17544181

Citation

Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M., et al. "The Annual Impact of Seasonal Influenza in the US: Measuring Disease Burden and Costs." Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 27, 2007, pp. 5086-96.
Molinari NA, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Messonnier ML, et al. The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: measuring disease burden and costs. Vaccine. 2007;25(27):5086-96.
Molinari, N. A., Ortega-Sanchez, I. R., Messonnier, M. L., Thompson, W. W., Wortley, P. M., Weintraub, E., & Bridges, C. B. (2007). The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: measuring disease burden and costs. Vaccine, 25(27), 5086-96.
Molinari NA, et al. The Annual Impact of Seasonal Influenza in the US: Measuring Disease Burden and Costs. Vaccine. 2007 Jun 28;25(27):5086-96. PubMed PMID: 17544181.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: measuring disease burden and costs. AU - Molinari,Noelle-Angelique M, AU - Ortega-Sanchez,Ismael R, AU - Messonnier,Mark L, AU - Thompson,William W, AU - Wortley,Pascale M, AU - Weintraub,Eric, AU - Bridges,Carolyn B, Y1 - 2007/04/20/ PY - 2006/09/27/received PY - 2007/03/21/revised PY - 2007/03/26/accepted PY - 2007/6/5/pubmed PY - 2007/8/3/medline PY - 2007/6/5/entrez SP - 5086 EP - 96 JF - Vaccine JO - Vaccine VL - 25 IS - 27 N2 - BACKGROUND: Despite preventive efforts, influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year in the United States (US). Vaccination strategies to reduce disease burden have been implemented. However, no previous studies have systematically estimated the annual economic burden of influenza epidemics, an estimate necessary to guide policy makers effectively. OBJECTIVE: We estimate age- and risk-specific disease burden, and medical and indirect costs attributable to annual influenza epidemics in the United States. METHODS: Using a probabilistic model and publicly available epidemiological data we estimated the number of influenza-attributable cases leading to outpatient visits, hospitalization, and mortality, as well as time lost from work absenteeism or premature death. With data from health insurance claims and projections of either earnings or statistical life values, we then estimated healthcare resource utilization associated with influenza cases as were their medical and productivity (indirect) costs in $2003. RESULTS: Based on 2003 US population, we estimated that annual influenza epidemics resulted in an average of 610,660 life-years lost (undiscounted), 3.1 million hospitalized days, and 31.4 million outpatient visits. Direct medical costs averaged $10.4 billion (95% confidence interval [C.I.], $4.1, $22.2) annually. Projected lost earnings due to illness and loss of life amounted to $16.3 billion (C.I., $8.7, $31.0) annually. The total economic burden of annual influenza epidemics using projected statistical life values amounted to $87.1 billion (C.I., $47.2, $149.5). CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the enormous annual burden of influenza in the US. While hospitalization costs are important contributors, lost productivity from missed work days and lost lives comprise the bulk of the economic burden of influenza. SN - 0264-410X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17544181/The_annual_impact_of_seasonal_influenza_in_the_US:_measuring_disease_burden_and_costs_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264-410X(07)00385-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -