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Effects of air traffic geometry on pilots' conflict detection with cockpit display of traffic information.
Hum Factors. 2007 Jun; 49(3):358-75.HF

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This experiment attempted to identify the features of air traffic geometry that would influence the difficulty and biases of pilots' conflict detection using a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI).

BACKGROUND

There was previously no systematic study on effects of such features on conflict detection using the CDTI.

METHOD

Twenty-four pilots viewed dynamic encounters between their own aircraft and an intruder aircraft on a simulated CDTI; difficulty was varied by the intruder aircraft's distance and time to closest point of approach (CPA), relative speed, miss distance at CPA, approach side, and conflict angle. Participants estimated the intruder's location at, and its time to, CPA. Effects on three estimation error measures were explored: intruder's miss distance at CPA, orientation at CPA, and time to CPA.

RESULTS

(a) Estimation errors increased with slower speeds, longer times to CPA, and longer distances to CPA and with longer miss distances at CPA; (b) the best performance occurred at a conflict angle of 90 degrees; (c) there was a bias to judge conflicts to be more risky than was actually the case; and (d) there was a "distance-over-speed" bias, such that two aircraft farther apart and converging rapidly were perceived as less risky than when they were closer to each other and converging at a slower rate, despite identical time to CPA.

CONCLUSION

Pilots' conflict detection with CDTI was subject to various errors and biases, which has important safety implications.

APPLICATION

The design of procedures, displays, and decision support tools for the free flight environment needs to take these human performance limitations into account.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Savoy, Illinois, USA. xidong.xu@boeing.comNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17552303

Citation

Xu, Xidong, and Esa M. Rantanen. "Effects of Air Traffic Geometry On Pilots' Conflict Detection With Cockpit Display of Traffic Information." Human Factors, vol. 49, no. 3, 2007, pp. 358-75.
Xu X, Rantanen EM. Effects of air traffic geometry on pilots' conflict detection with cockpit display of traffic information. Hum Factors. 2007;49(3):358-75.
Xu, X., & Rantanen, E. M. (2007). Effects of air traffic geometry on pilots' conflict detection with cockpit display of traffic information. Human Factors, 49(3), 358-75.
Xu X, Rantanen EM. Effects of Air Traffic Geometry On Pilots' Conflict Detection With Cockpit Display of Traffic Information. Hum Factors. 2007;49(3):358-75. PubMed PMID: 17552303.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of air traffic geometry on pilots' conflict detection with cockpit display of traffic information. AU - Xu,Xidong, AU - Rantanen,Esa M, PY - 2007/6/8/pubmed PY - 2008/1/30/medline PY - 2007/6/8/entrez SP - 358 EP - 75 JF - Human factors JO - Hum Factors VL - 49 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This experiment attempted to identify the features of air traffic geometry that would influence the difficulty and biases of pilots' conflict detection using a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). BACKGROUND: There was previously no systematic study on effects of such features on conflict detection using the CDTI. METHOD: Twenty-four pilots viewed dynamic encounters between their own aircraft and an intruder aircraft on a simulated CDTI; difficulty was varied by the intruder aircraft's distance and time to closest point of approach (CPA), relative speed, miss distance at CPA, approach side, and conflict angle. Participants estimated the intruder's location at, and its time to, CPA. Effects on three estimation error measures were explored: intruder's miss distance at CPA, orientation at CPA, and time to CPA. RESULTS: (a) Estimation errors increased with slower speeds, longer times to CPA, and longer distances to CPA and with longer miss distances at CPA; (b) the best performance occurred at a conflict angle of 90 degrees; (c) there was a bias to judge conflicts to be more risky than was actually the case; and (d) there was a "distance-over-speed" bias, such that two aircraft farther apart and converging rapidly were perceived as less risky than when they were closer to each other and converging at a slower rate, despite identical time to CPA. CONCLUSION: Pilots' conflict detection with CDTI was subject to various errors and biases, which has important safety implications. APPLICATION: The design of procedures, displays, and decision support tools for the free flight environment needs to take these human performance limitations into account. SN - 0018-7208 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17552303/Effects_of_air_traffic_geometry_on_pilots'_conflict_detection_with_cockpit_display_of_traffic_information_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1518/001872007X197008?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -