A multi-gene phylogeny of Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota, Fungi): identification of localized incongruence using a combinational bootstrap approach.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007 Sep; 44(3):1204-23.MP
Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses were conducted to address the evolution of Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota). Data are presented here for approximately 5900 base pairs from portions of seven loci: the nuclear ribosomal small and large subunit DNA (nrSSU and nrLSU), beta-tubulin, elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha), the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), and mitochondrial ATP Synthase subunit 6 (mtATP6). These data were analyzed in a complete 66-taxon matrix and 91-taxon supermatrix that included some missing data. Separate phylogenetic analyses, with data partitioned according to genes, produced some conflicting results. The results of separate analyses from RPB1 and RPB2 are in agreement with the combined analyses that resolve a paraphyletic Clavicipitaceae comprising three well-supported clades (i.e., Clavicipitaceae clade A, B, and C), whereas the tree obtained from mtATP6 is in strong conflict with the monophyly of Clavicipitaceae clade B and the sister-group relationship of Hypocreaceae and Clavicipitaceae clade C. The distribution of relative contribution of nodal support for each gene partition was assessed using both partitioned Bremer support (PBS) values and combinational bootstrap (CB) analyses, the latter of which analyzed bootstrap proportions from all possible combinations of the seven gene partitions. These results suggest that CB analyses provide a more consistent estimate of nodal support than PBS and that combining heterogeneous gene partitions, which individually support a limited number of nodes, results in increased support for overall tree topology. Analyses of the 91-taxa supermatrix data sets revealed that some nodes were more strongly supported by increased taxon sampling. Identifying the localized incongruence of mtATP6 and analyses of complete and supermatrix data sets strengthen the evidence for rejecting the monophyly of Clavicipitaceae and much of the current subfamilial classification of the family. Although the monophyly of the grass-associated subfamily Clavicipitoideae (e.g., Claviceps, Balansia, and Epichloë) is strongly supported, the subfamily Cordycipitoideae (e.g., Cordyceps and Torrubiella) is not monophyletic. In particular, species of the genus Cordyceps, which are pathogens of arthropods and truffles, are found in all three clavicipitaceous clades. These results imply that most characters used in the current familial classification of Clavicipitaceae are not diagnostic of monophyly.