Non-pharmacologic prevention of Alzheimer's disease: nutritional and life-style risk factors.J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007 Sep; 114(9):1187-97.JN
We conducted a review of cohort studies and interventional studies on nutritional and life-style risk factors and primary prevention of Alzheimer's Disease. Studies were assessed by the Oxford classification. Interventional studies exist for mental training and vitamin supplementation. For alcohol, fat and fish intake, mediterranean diet, homocysteine, overweight/caloric intake, physical and social activity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and smoking, currently there is only evidence from cohort studies. Cognitive stimulation by mental training increases mental functions and can be recommended on the basis of positive interventional studies. Vitamin supplementation cannot prevent AD on the basis of interventional studies. Hyperlipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes and typical life-style factors (alcohol, smoking, obesity etc.) modestly increased AD risk, fish, mediterranean diet and unsaturated fat or n-3 fatty acids and social activity are protective in observational cohorts, but interventional studies are lacking.