Olive oil containing olive oil fatty acid esters of plant sterols and dietary diacylglycerol reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases the tendency for peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.Br J Nutr. 2007 Sep; 98(3):563-70.BJ
Plant sterols (PS) and MUFA are well-documented cholesterol lowering agents. We aimed to determine the effect of PS esterified to olive oil fatty acids (PS-OO) on blood lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Twenty-one moderately overweight, hypercholesterolaemic subjects consumed three consecutive treatment diets, each lasting 28 d and separated by 4-week washout periods, using a randomized crossover design. Diets contained 30 % energy as fat, 70 % of which was provided by olive oil (OO), and differed only in the treatment oils: OO, PS esterified to sunflower oil fatty acids (PS-SO), and PS-OO. Both PS-SO and PS-OO treatments provided 1.7 g PS /d. PS-OO and PS-SO consumption resulted in a decrease (P = 0.0483) in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations compared with the OO diet. Although total cholesterol and apo B-100 levels were not significantly affected, PS-SO and, to some extent, PS-OO reduced the total:HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (P = 0.0142) and the apo B-100:apo A-I ratio (P = 0.0168) compared with the OO diet. There were no differences across diets in lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and lipid peroxidation levels. However, following consumption of OO and PS-SO, Lp(a) concentrations increased (P = 0.0050 and 0.0421, respectively), while PS-OO treatment did not affect Lp(a) levels. Furthermore, there was a decrease (P = 0.0097) in lipid peroxidation levels with PS-OO treatment during the supplementation phase. Our results suggest that supplementing an OO-rich diet with PS-OO favourably alters the plasma lipid profile and may decrease the susceptibility of LDL-C to lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.