The safety profile of moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones in special patient populations.Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Jun; 23(6):1403-13.CM
Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, represent a major advance in the development of antimicrobial agents. They offer significant activity against Gram-negative pathogens, while more advanced generation fluoroquinolones including levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, and moxifloxacin are significantly active against Gram-positive (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae for some members of the class), typical, atypical, and anaerobic pathogens. Fluoroquinolones have a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile that exhibits concentration-dependent killing and good oral absorption, allowing for once-daily dosing.
Review of data from fluoroquinolone studies, with an emphasis on the associated rare, but potentially clinically important, adverse events in specific patient populations. Review of clinical efficacy is included where relevant to the topic under discussion.
A literature search was conducted using terms including fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, safety, adverse events, drug interactions, and pharmacokinetic parameters to identify literature providing information regarding the safety profile of specified fluoroquinolones in special patient populations (i.e., the elderly, patients with liver disease, kidney disease, glycemic disorder, those at risk for cardiovascular events). Although specific date criteria were not applied to the search, preference was given to more recent publications. Online databases searched include MEDLINE and EMBASE and relevant textbooks were utilized as well.
Fluoroquinolones, when used either as monotherapy or as combination therapy depending on their individual indications, attain adequate concentrations for treating infections in different target sites, including epithelial lining fluid, alveolar macrophages, skin, and gastrointestinal tissues. Overall, fluoroquinolones have predictable and mild-to-moderate adverse-event profiles and are generally well tolerated. Findings of this review are limited by the availability of publications and case reports.
Fluoroquinolones, are associated with rare, but clinically important, adverse events in special patient populations (including the elderly; those with hepatic, renal, or glycemic disorders; and those at risk for cardiovascular events). Recognition of differences in the clinical efficacy and safety profiles of fluoroquinolones in special patient populations should lead to better antimicrobial agent selection.