Efficacy of artesunate plus amodiaquine, artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in the Comoros Union.Acta Trop. 2007 Jun; 102(3):176-81.AT
Health policy makers in Comoros Union have considered a policy change recommending combination treatment to control malaria. We evaluated the efficacy of three antimalarial drug combinations, taken orally, to enable the authorities to make an evidence-based choice. The study was carried out in patients of 2-70 years old in Moroni, Moheli and Anjouan in 2003. We enrolled 168 patients with uncomplicated malaria from 1097 outpatients screened at the health centres. One hundred and fifty-eight patients, of whom half were under five years old, (mean age=11.1+/-13.9 years), were followed up for 14 days. According to PCR adjusted outcome, the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate+amodiaquine (AS+AQ) (n=54) and artesunate+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) (n=53) was 100%, whereas that of chloroquine+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ+SP) was 98% (50/51). The key difference between these treatments was the higher parasite clearance rate on Day 2 obtained with artesunate-containing combinations (P<0.001). These results provide a baseline for monitoring changes in the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate+amodiaquine and artesunate+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ACTs) in the Comoros Union. Health policy changes involving the replacement of chloroquine in the Indian Ocean subregion are discussed.