Anthocyanins in berries of ribes including gooseberry cultivars with a high content of acylated pigments.J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jul 11; 55(14):5529-35.JA
Consumption of berries from various sources including the genus Ribes has been associated with diverse potential health benefits. The 14 examined cultivars of European gooseberry (R. grossularia L.) contained in various proportions the 3-glucoside (3), 3-rutinoside (4), 3-xyloside (7), 3-O-beta-(6' '-E-caffeoylglucopyranoside) (8), and 3-O-beta-(6' '-E-p-coumaroylglucopyranoside) (10) of cyanidin and the 3-rutinoside (6) and 3-glucoside of peonidin (5). Pigments 3, 4, delphinidin 3-rutinoside (2), delphinidin 3-glucoside (1), and minor amounts of 6, 7, and 10 were found in red flowering currant (R. sanguineum Pursh). Golden currant (R. aureum Pursh) contained 3, 4, and trace amounts of 1, 6, and 7, while alpine currant (R. alpinum L.) contained 3, 4, and trace amounts of 10. The major anthocyanins in two cultivars of jostaberries (R. x nidigrolaria Bauer), 1-4, 8, and 10, reflected that this hybrid contained the major anthocyanins of both parents, black currant and gooseberry. This is the first complete identification of 8 and the ring size of the sugar of 10. Pigment 9 was tentatively identified as cyanidin 3-(6' '-Z-p-coumaroylglucoside). This new pigment occurred in minor amounts (<2%) in all R. grosssularia and R. x nidigrolaria cultivars. No commercially available berries have been reported to contain such high proportions of aromatic acylated anthocyanins as found in the gooseberry cultivars "Samsø", "Hinnomäki Red", "Taastrup", "Lofthus", and "Glendal", which are in this context the most obvious candidates for consumption, colorant, and breeding programs.