Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Sodium oxybate: new drug. Fewer attacks of cataplexy in some patients.
Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun; 16(89):98-101.PI

Abstract

(1) Narcolepsy is characterised by sudden, overwhelming daytime drowsiness, sometimes associated with cataplexy (more or less complete loss of muscle tone during an emotional reaction). (2) Modafinil moderately reduces daytime drowsiness but has no effect on cataplexy. Methylphenidate, an amphetamine psychostimulant, seems to act on both drowsiness and cataplexy, although its clinical evaluation is limited to observational series. (3) Oxybic acid, long used in general anaesthesia, but also misused for recreational and criminal purposes (chemical or drug-induced submission), has been approved to treat adults with both narcolepsy and cataplexy, in the form of an oral solution of sodium oxybate. (4) The rationale behind the use of sodium oxybate is to re-establish a near-normal pattern of the different phases of sleep. Because of its short-lasting action, sodium oxybate has to be taken once at bedtime and then again 2.5 to 4 hours later. (5) Clinical evaluation mainly consists of 4 double-blind placebo-controlled trials of sodium oxybate. Three short-term trials, involving 136 patients treated for 4 weeks and 228 and 270 patients treated for 8 weeks, showed that sodium oxybate at a dose of 4.5 g to 9 g a day reduced the number of cataplexy attacks but that a dose of at least 6 g was needed to reduce daytime drowsiness. A trial involving 56 patients who had been taking sodium oxybate for nearly 2 years, assessed the effects of stopping versus continuing treatment. The results suggest that sodium oxybate is effective in the long term. (6) During clinical trials, 61% of patients had adverse effects attributed to sodium oxybate. These included gastrointestinal disorders (nausea (18%)), neurological disorders (dizziness (15%), headache (6%)), confusion (3%), and enuresis (7%). (7) Altered consciousness and respiratory depression occurred after a single intake of a dose two or three times higher than the recommended dose. (8) Misuse, especially to obtain chemical or drug-induced submission (i.e. as a 'date rape' drug), is facilitated by the odourless and colourless nature of the oral solution. (9) In practice, for some patients who are seriously affected by persistent episodes of cataplexy or drowsiness, despite treatment of narcolepsy, sodium oxybate is preferable to methylphenidate, which has been less thoroughly evaluated. However, the risks of misuse and overdose mean that this drug should only be proposed to patients in whom the benefits are likely to outweigh the risks.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17582923

Citation

"Sodium Oxybate: New Drug. Fewer Attacks of Cataplexy in some Patients." Prescrire International, vol. 16, no. 89, 2007, pp. 98-101.
Sodium oxybate: new drug. Fewer attacks of cataplexy in some patients. Prescrire Int. 2007;16(89):98-101.
(2007). Sodium oxybate: new drug. Fewer attacks of cataplexy in some patients. Prescrire International, 16(89), 98-101.
Sodium Oxybate: New Drug. Fewer Attacks of Cataplexy in some Patients. Prescrire Int. 2007;16(89):98-101. PubMed PMID: 17582923.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sodium oxybate: new drug. Fewer attacks of cataplexy in some patients. PY - 2007/6/23/pubmed PY - 2007/7/14/medline PY - 2007/6/23/entrez SP - 98 EP - 101 JF - Prescrire international JO - Prescrire Int VL - 16 IS - 89 N2 - (1) Narcolepsy is characterised by sudden, overwhelming daytime drowsiness, sometimes associated with cataplexy (more or less complete loss of muscle tone during an emotional reaction). (2) Modafinil moderately reduces daytime drowsiness but has no effect on cataplexy. Methylphenidate, an amphetamine psychostimulant, seems to act on both drowsiness and cataplexy, although its clinical evaluation is limited to observational series. (3) Oxybic acid, long used in general anaesthesia, but also misused for recreational and criminal purposes (chemical or drug-induced submission), has been approved to treat adults with both narcolepsy and cataplexy, in the form of an oral solution of sodium oxybate. (4) The rationale behind the use of sodium oxybate is to re-establish a near-normal pattern of the different phases of sleep. Because of its short-lasting action, sodium oxybate has to be taken once at bedtime and then again 2.5 to 4 hours later. (5) Clinical evaluation mainly consists of 4 double-blind placebo-controlled trials of sodium oxybate. Three short-term trials, involving 136 patients treated for 4 weeks and 228 and 270 patients treated for 8 weeks, showed that sodium oxybate at a dose of 4.5 g to 9 g a day reduced the number of cataplexy attacks but that a dose of at least 6 g was needed to reduce daytime drowsiness. A trial involving 56 patients who had been taking sodium oxybate for nearly 2 years, assessed the effects of stopping versus continuing treatment. The results suggest that sodium oxybate is effective in the long term. (6) During clinical trials, 61% of patients had adverse effects attributed to sodium oxybate. These included gastrointestinal disorders (nausea (18%)), neurological disorders (dizziness (15%), headache (6%)), confusion (3%), and enuresis (7%). (7) Altered consciousness and respiratory depression occurred after a single intake of a dose two or three times higher than the recommended dose. (8) Misuse, especially to obtain chemical or drug-induced submission (i.e. as a 'date rape' drug), is facilitated by the odourless and colourless nature of the oral solution. (9) In practice, for some patients who are seriously affected by persistent episodes of cataplexy or drowsiness, despite treatment of narcolepsy, sodium oxybate is preferable to methylphenidate, which has been less thoroughly evaluated. However, the risks of misuse and overdose mean that this drug should only be proposed to patients in whom the benefits are likely to outweigh the risks. SN - 1167-7422 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17582923/Sodium_oxybate:_new_drug__Fewer_attacks_of_cataplexy_in_some_patients_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/1138 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -