Role of heat shock transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidative stress response.Eukaryot Cell. 2007 Aug; 6(8):1373-9.EC
The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates the transcription of a set of genes that contain heat shock elements (HSEs) in their promoters and function in diverse cellular processes, including protein folding. Here, we show that Hsf1 activates the transcription of various target genes when cells are treated with oxidizing reagents, including the superoxide anion generators menadione and KO(2) and the thiol oxidants diamide and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Similar to heat shock, the oxidizing reagents are potent inducers of both efficient HSE binding and extensive phosphorylation of Hsf1. The inducible phosphorylation of Hsf1 is regulated by the intramolecular domain-domain interactions and affects HSE structure-specific transcription. Unlike the heat shock, diamide, or CDNB response, menadione or KO(2) activation of Hsf1 is inhibited by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity, which negatively regulates the activator functions of other transcriptional regulators implicated in the oxidative stress response. These results demonstrate that Hsf1 is a member of the oxidative stress-responsive activators and that PKA is a general negative regulator in the superoxide anion response.