Characterizing the emissions of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from municipal and industrial waste incinerators.Environ Sci Technol. 2007 Feb 15; 41(4):1159-65.ES
As yet, very little is known about the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) characteristics in the stack flue gases of incinerators. In this study, nine large-scale continuous municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), two small-scale batch MSWls, and nine industrial waste incinerators (IWIs) were investigated for 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs. The elevated PBDD/F concentrations (18.2 pg/Nm3, 4.17 pg TEQ/Nm3) of the IWIs, which were eight times higher than those of MSWIs (2.28 pg/Nm3, 0.557 pg TEQ/Nm3), are accompanied by PCDD/ Fs that are in the same range as those measured from MSWIs (0.0171-1.98 ng I-TEQ/Nm3). The obtained TEQ ratios (in percentage) of the PBDD/F to the PCDD/F concentration in the stack flue gases of the MSWls (0.72%), batch MWIs (0.18%), and IWIs (5.4%) are useful for the future estimate of PBDD/F emission quantity based on the well-established PCDD/F inventory. In addition, a significantly high correlation was found between the PBDD/F and PCDD/F concentrations, and the PBDD/F and PCDD/F congener profiles of the same emission source were similar, indicating a similar formation and substitution mechanism of bromine and chlorine in the combustion system.