The performance of serial bioreactors in rapid continuous production of ethanol from dilute-acid hydrolyzates using immobilized cells.Bioresour Technol. 2008 May; 99(7):2226-33.BT
The performance of single, and series of, continuous stirred-tank (CSTBR) and fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBBR) in anaerobic continuous cultivation of glucose in defined media and dilute-acid hydrolyzates at dilution rates 0.22, 0.43, 0.65 and 0.86 h(-1) using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066, was investigated. While the single CSTBR and FBBR could not take up more than 77% and 92% of glucose in a defined medium at dilution rate 0.86 h(-1), addition of the second bioreactor decreased the residual glucose to less than 1.1% of the incoming sugar. A similar trend was obtained in cultivation of dilute-acid hydrolyzates. A CSTBR could take up 75% and 54% of the initial fermentable sugars at dilution rates 0.43 and 0.86 h(-1), while the addition of the FBBR improved the assimilation of the sugars to 100% and 86%, respectively. The ethanol yields from the hydrolyzate were between 0.41 and 0.48 g/g in all the experiments. The specific and volumetric ethanol productivities were 1.13 g/gh and 5.98 g/Lh for the single bioreactor and 0.98 g/gh and 5.49 g/Lh for the serial bioreactor at the highest dilution rate, respectively. Glycerol was the only important by-product in terms of concentration, and yielded 0.05-0.07 g/g from the hydrolyzate. From the initial 3.98 g/L acetic acid present in the hydrolyzate, 0.1-0.8 g/L was assimilated by the cells. The yeast cells were accumulated close to the surface of the beads. While the cells had a dry-weight concentration of 129 g/L close to the surface of the beads, the concentration in the core was only 13 g/L.