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High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50(1):14-21JACC

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

BACKGROUND

The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly in populations consuming modest glycemic load diets. Moreover, risk may differ between lean and overweight subjects.

METHODS

Associations of glycemic index and glycemic load with incident CVD were examined in a prospective cohort of 15,714 Dutch women age 49 to 70 years without diabetes or CVD. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were calculated using the glycemic index, carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of individual foods.

RESULTS

During 9 +/- 2 years of follow-up, 556 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) and 243 cases of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurred. Dietary glycemic load (mean = 100; SD = 17) was associated with increased risk of CVD, adjusted for CVD risk factors and dietary variables, with a hazard ratio (HR) for the highest against lowest quartile of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 2.09; p(trend) = 0.03). Similar results were observed for dietary glycemic index with a corresponding HR of 1.33 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.67; p(trend) = 0.02). Glycemic load tended to be associated with both CHD (HR 1.44; 95% CI 0.95 to 2.19; p(trend) = 0.14) and CVA (HR 1.55; 95% CI 0.81 to 2.97; p(trend) = 0.10), but glycemic index only with CHD (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89; p(trend) = 0.01). Among overweight women (body mass index >25 kg/m2), glycemic load was associated with CVD (1.78; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.85; p(trend) = 0.04), but not among normal weight women (p(interaction) = 0.19). Body mass index did not modify the association of glycemic index with CVD.

CONCLUSIONS

Among women consuming modest glycemic load diets, high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase the risk of CVD, particularly for overweight women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. J.Beulens@umcutrecht.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17601539

Citation

Beulens, Joline W J., et al. "High Dietary Glycemic Load and Glycemic Index Increase Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Middle-aged Women: a Population-based Follow-up Study." Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 14-21.
Beulens JW, de Bruijne LM, Stolk RP, et al. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50(1):14-21.
Beulens, J. W., de Bruijne, L. M., Stolk, R. P., Peeters, P. H., Bots, M. L., Grobbee, D. E., & van der Schouw, Y. T. (2007). High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 50(1), pp. 14-21.
Beulens JW, et al. High Dietary Glycemic Load and Glycemic Index Increase Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Middle-aged Women: a Population-based Follow-up Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jul 3;50(1):14-21. PubMed PMID: 17601539.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study. AU - Beulens,Joline W J, AU - de Bruijne,Leonie M, AU - Stolk,Ronald P, AU - Peeters,Petra H M, AU - Bots,Michiel L, AU - Grobbee,Diederick E, AU - van der Schouw,Yvonne T, Y1 - 2007/06/18/ PY - 2006/11/10/received PY - 2007/02/05/revised PY - 2007/02/12/accepted PY - 2007/7/3/pubmed PY - 2007/8/10/medline PY - 2007/7/3/entrez SP - 14 EP - 21 JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology JO - J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. VL - 50 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). BACKGROUND: The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly in populations consuming modest glycemic load diets. Moreover, risk may differ between lean and overweight subjects. METHODS: Associations of glycemic index and glycemic load with incident CVD were examined in a prospective cohort of 15,714 Dutch women age 49 to 70 years without diabetes or CVD. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were calculated using the glycemic index, carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of individual foods. RESULTS: During 9 +/- 2 years of follow-up, 556 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) and 243 cases of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurred. Dietary glycemic load (mean = 100; SD = 17) was associated with increased risk of CVD, adjusted for CVD risk factors and dietary variables, with a hazard ratio (HR) for the highest against lowest quartile of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 2.09; p(trend) = 0.03). Similar results were observed for dietary glycemic index with a corresponding HR of 1.33 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.67; p(trend) = 0.02). Glycemic load tended to be associated with both CHD (HR 1.44; 95% CI 0.95 to 2.19; p(trend) = 0.14) and CVA (HR 1.55; 95% CI 0.81 to 2.97; p(trend) = 0.10), but glycemic index only with CHD (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89; p(trend) = 0.01). Among overweight women (body mass index >25 kg/m2), glycemic load was associated with CVD (1.78; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.85; p(trend) = 0.04), but not among normal weight women (p(interaction) = 0.19). Body mass index did not modify the association of glycemic index with CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Among women consuming modest glycemic load diets, high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase the risk of CVD, particularly for overweight women. SN - 1558-3597 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17601539/High_dietary_glycemic_load_and_glycemic_index_increase_risk_of_cardiovascular_disease_among_middle_aged_women:_a_population_based_follow_up_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0735-1097(07)01276-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -