[Absolute risk for fracture and WHO guideline. Pharmacological intervention to prevent osteoporotic fractures in the elderly].Clin Calcium 2007; 17(7):1098-104CC
The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases along aging and the importance of their prevention is more emphasized in the elderly. Although the major determinants for fragile fractures in the elderly are not only the lower bone strength but also frailty and fall, treatments with anti-resorbers are effective also in the elderly. On the other hands, nutritional agents such as active vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 are effective in reducing the fracture incidences in spite of their modest effects on bone mineral density. Recently, the effects of vitamin Ds on the reduction of fall events are noticed and the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in the elderly through extra-skeletal mechanisms seems promising.