Spectrum of skin disorders in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Singapore and the relationship to CD4 lymphocyte counts.Int J Dermatol. 2007 Jul; 46(7):695-9.IJ
Skin disorders are extremely common and cause significant morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. There are few data on their prevalence and association with CD4 counts in Asians.
To evaluate the prevalence of skin disorders in ambulatory HIV-infected individuals attending a specialized skin clinic in Singapore and the association with the degree of immunosuppression.
A cross-sectional study on skin disorders in HIV-positive outpatients in the Communicable Disease Centre of Singapore was performed. The association between skin disease prevalence and CD4 count was evaluated using logistic regression.
Ninety-six patients (male : female, 8 : 1) were enrolled. The most common mode of HIV transmission was heterosexual (75%), followed by homosexual/bisexual contacts (22%), and intravenous drug abuse (3%). The distribution of patients in terms of current CD4 cell counts was as follows: 38.5% with less than 50 x 10(6)/L, 25% with between 50 and 199/microL, and 36.5% with at least 200 x 10(6)/L. The most common skin disorder was pruritic papular eruption (PPE) of HIV infection (31 cases), followed by psoriasis (24), seborrheic dermatitis (18), xerosis (17), herpes simplex (17), and adverse drug eruptions (17). A CD4 cell count of less than 200 x 10(6)/L was significantly associated with a higher number of skin disorders (P = 0.002) and the development of psoriasis [odds ratio (OR), 8.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-47.16; P = 0.010], PPE (OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.21-9.53; P = 0.020), and adverse drug eruption (OR, 5.83; 95% CI, 1.21-28.00; P = 0.028).
A preponderance of inflammatory dermatoses and an absence of skin tumors characterized this study. A low CD4 cell count was associated with a higher number of skin disorders and an increased incidence of PPE, psoriasis, and adverse drug eruptions.