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Dietary iron overload in the African and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Liver Int. 2007 Aug; 27(6):735-41.LI

Abstract

Dietary iron overload occurs commonly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. It results from the consumption of large volumes of traditional beer that is home-brewed in iron pots or drums and consequently has a high iron content. The liver becomes iron overloaded and may develop portal fibrosis or, less often, cirrhosis. A genetic predisposition to the condition has been suggested, but no putative gene has yet been identified. Although originally believed not to cause hepatocellular carcinoma, recent case-control studies have shown African Blacks with dietary iron overload to be at increased risk for the tumour and a causal association has been confirmed in an animal model. The mechanisms of iron-induced malignant transformation are yet to be fully characterised, but the close association between cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis and the lesser association in those with dietary iron overload, suggests that chronic necroinflammatory hepatic disease contributes to the malignant transformation. Increased hepatic iron may, however, also be directly carcinogenic. Probable mechanisms include the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and the resultant chronic oxidative stress that damages hepatocytes and proteins, causes lipid peroxidation, and induces strand breaks, DNA unwinding, and mutations in tumour-suppressor genes and critical DNA repair genes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

MRC/CANSA/University Molecular Hepatology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. kewmc@medicine.wits.ac.zaNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17617115

Citation

Kew, Michael C., and George A. Asare. "Dietary Iron Overload in the African and Hepatocellular Carcinoma." Liver International : Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, vol. 27, no. 6, 2007, pp. 735-41.
Kew MC, Asare GA. Dietary iron overload in the African and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2007;27(6):735-41.
Kew, M. C., & Asare, G. A. (2007). Dietary iron overload in the African and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver International : Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, 27(6), 735-41.
Kew MC, Asare GA. Dietary Iron Overload in the African and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Liver Int. 2007;27(6):735-41. PubMed PMID: 17617115.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary iron overload in the African and hepatocellular carcinoma. AU - Kew,Michael C, AU - Asare,George A, PY - 2007/7/10/pubmed PY - 2007/9/20/medline PY - 2007/7/10/entrez SP - 735 EP - 41 JF - Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver JO - Liver Int VL - 27 IS - 6 N2 - Dietary iron overload occurs commonly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. It results from the consumption of large volumes of traditional beer that is home-brewed in iron pots or drums and consequently has a high iron content. The liver becomes iron overloaded and may develop portal fibrosis or, less often, cirrhosis. A genetic predisposition to the condition has been suggested, but no putative gene has yet been identified. Although originally believed not to cause hepatocellular carcinoma, recent case-control studies have shown African Blacks with dietary iron overload to be at increased risk for the tumour and a causal association has been confirmed in an animal model. The mechanisms of iron-induced malignant transformation are yet to be fully characterised, but the close association between cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis and the lesser association in those with dietary iron overload, suggests that chronic necroinflammatory hepatic disease contributes to the malignant transformation. Increased hepatic iron may, however, also be directly carcinogenic. Probable mechanisms include the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and the resultant chronic oxidative stress that damages hepatocytes and proteins, causes lipid peroxidation, and induces strand breaks, DNA unwinding, and mutations in tumour-suppressor genes and critical DNA repair genes. SN - 1478-3223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17617115/Dietary_iron_overload_in_the_African_and_hepatocellular_carcinoma_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01515.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -