Levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: epidemiology, etiology, and treatment.Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2007 Jul; 7(4):302-10.CN
Although levodopa is the gold standard for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), long-term therapy leads to levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Dyskinesia refers to involuntary movements other than tremor and most commonly consists of chorea that occurs when levodopa-derived dopamine is peaking in the brain ("peak-dose dyskinesia"). However, dyskinesia can also consist of dystonia or myoclonus and occur during other parts of the levodopa dosing cycle. New validated rating scales and home diaries can better help the health care provider assess the timing and severity of dyskinesia. The exact etiology of LID is unknown, but there is evidence that abnormal pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors may be contributory. Treatment of LID includes adjustment of PD medications to maximize "on" time without troublesome dyskinesia. Amantadine is the only medication available with demonstrated ability to reduce the expression of established LID without reducing antiparkinsonian benefit. Other medications that are currently being studied to treat established LID include antiepileptics and serotonergic medications. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is now the most commonly used surgical procedure for PD patients, and it is very effective in treating LID.