Ambient concentrations and source apportionment of PCBs and trace elements around an industrial area in Izmir, Turkey.Chemosphere. 2007 Oct; 69(8):1267-77.C
Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trace elements were measured at two sites (Industrial and Urban) located around the Aliaga industrial region, Izmir, Turkey. Average sigma 36PCB concentrations were 3136+/-824 and 1371+/-642 pg m(-3) for summer and winter periods, respectively in the Industrial site and they were 314+/-129 and 847+/-610 pg m(-3) in the Urban site. The elemental content showed that the PM(10) measured at the Industrial site was dominated by terrestrial elements and trace elements emitted by the iron-steel plants (Fe, Zn and Pb). The elemental profile at the Urban site was typical for Aegean Region that was dominated by terrestrial elements (Ca, Al, Mg) and sea salt (Na). Sources of particle-phase PCBs and trace elements were identified using factor analysis (FA) and were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. FA suggested that the steel industry, fuel oil combustion, or the nearby vinyl chloride process in the petrochemical plant, and soil were significant PCB sources. CMB results showed that at the Industrial site, the contribution of steel industry and soil to particle-phase PCBs were 71% and 22%, respectively, while at the Urban site, the contributions were 33% and 49%, respectively. Steel industry was also the dominant contributor for trace elements around the site. Fugacity calculations in air and soil showed that the soil acts as a secondary source to the atmosphere for low molecular weight PCBs especially in summer and as a sink for the higher molecular weight ones.