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Combination of a pesticide exposure and a bacterial challenge: in vivo effects on immune response of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg).
Aquat Toxicol. 2007 Aug 15; 84(1):92-102.AT

Abstract

To assess the impact of pollution induced by pesticides on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, health in France, in vivo effects of combined pesticide exposure and bacterial challenge on cell activities and gene expression in hemocytes were tested using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. As a first step, an in vivo model of experimental contamination was developed. Pacific oysters were exposed to a mixture of eight pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, alachlor, metolachlor, fosetyl-alumimium, terbuthylazine, diuron and carbaryl) at environmentally relevant concentrations over a 7-day period. Hemocyte parameters (cell mortality, enzyme activities and phagocytosis) were monitored using flow cytometry and gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The expression of 19 genes involved in C. gigas hemocyte functions was characterized using RT-PCR. After 7 days of exposure, phagocytosis was significantly reduced and the 19 selected genes were down-regulated in treated animals. As a second step, the experimental contamination method previously developed was used to study interactions between pesticide exposure and bacterial challenge by intramuscular injection of two Vibrio splendidus-related pathogenic strains. Oyster mortality and expression of 10 of the 19 selected genes were followed 4 and 24h post-injection. Oyster mortality was higher in pesticide-treated oysters compared to untreated oysters after the bacterial challenge. Gene expression was up-regulated in pesticide-treated oysters compared to untreated oysters after the bacterial challenge. We hypothesize that gene over-expression due to an interaction between pesticides and bacteria could lead to an injury of host tissues, resulting in higher mortality rates. In conclusion, this study is the first to show effects of pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations on C. gigas hemocytes and to hypothesize that pesticides modulate the immune response to a bacterial challenge in oysters.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Ifremer La Tremblade, Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie (LGP), 17390 La Tremblade, France. beatrice.gagnaire@free.frNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17628715

Citation

Gagnaire, Beatrice, et al. "Combination of a Pesticide Exposure and a Bacterial Challenge: in Vivo Effects On Immune Response of Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg)." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 84, no. 1, 2007, pp. 92-102.
Gagnaire B, Gay M, Huvet A, et al. Combination of a pesticide exposure and a bacterial challenge: in vivo effects on immune response of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Aquat Toxicol. 2007;84(1):92-102.
Gagnaire, B., Gay, M., Huvet, A., Daniel, J. Y., Saulnier, D., & Renault, T. (2007). Combination of a pesticide exposure and a bacterial challenge: in vivo effects on immune response of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 84(1), 92-102.
Gagnaire B, et al. Combination of a Pesticide Exposure and a Bacterial Challenge: in Vivo Effects On Immune Response of Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg). Aquat Toxicol. 2007 Aug 15;84(1):92-102. PubMed PMID: 17628715.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Combination of a pesticide exposure and a bacterial challenge: in vivo effects on immune response of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). AU - Gagnaire,Beatrice, AU - Gay,Melanie, AU - Huvet,Arnaud, AU - Daniel,Jean-Yves, AU - Saulnier,Denis, AU - Renault,Tristan, Y1 - 2007/06/12/ PY - 2007/04/02/received PY - 2007/06/04/revised PY - 2007/06/05/accepted PY - 2007/7/14/pubmed PY - 2007/11/7/medline PY - 2007/7/14/entrez SP - 92 EP - 102 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat Toxicol VL - 84 IS - 1 N2 - To assess the impact of pollution induced by pesticides on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, health in France, in vivo effects of combined pesticide exposure and bacterial challenge on cell activities and gene expression in hemocytes were tested using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. As a first step, an in vivo model of experimental contamination was developed. Pacific oysters were exposed to a mixture of eight pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, alachlor, metolachlor, fosetyl-alumimium, terbuthylazine, diuron and carbaryl) at environmentally relevant concentrations over a 7-day period. Hemocyte parameters (cell mortality, enzyme activities and phagocytosis) were monitored using flow cytometry and gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The expression of 19 genes involved in C. gigas hemocyte functions was characterized using RT-PCR. After 7 days of exposure, phagocytosis was significantly reduced and the 19 selected genes were down-regulated in treated animals. As a second step, the experimental contamination method previously developed was used to study interactions between pesticide exposure and bacterial challenge by intramuscular injection of two Vibrio splendidus-related pathogenic strains. Oyster mortality and expression of 10 of the 19 selected genes were followed 4 and 24h post-injection. Oyster mortality was higher in pesticide-treated oysters compared to untreated oysters after the bacterial challenge. Gene expression was up-regulated in pesticide-treated oysters compared to untreated oysters after the bacterial challenge. We hypothesize that gene over-expression due to an interaction between pesticides and bacteria could lead to an injury of host tissues, resulting in higher mortality rates. In conclusion, this study is the first to show effects of pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations on C. gigas hemocytes and to hypothesize that pesticides modulate the immune response to a bacterial challenge in oysters. SN - 0166-445X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17628715/Combination_of_a_pesticide_exposure_and_a_bacterial_challenge:_in_vivo_effects_on_immune_response_of_Pacific_oyster_Crassostrea_gigas__Thunberg__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(07)00211-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -