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Longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and changes in traumatic memories over time in Bosnian refugees.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007 Jul; 195(7):572-9.JN

Abstract

This longitudinal study examined traumatic memory consistency over a 3-year period among a sample of highly traumatized Bosnian refugees, focusing on demographic factors, types of trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. In 1996 and 1999, 376 Bosnian refugees were interviewed about 54 wartime trauma and torture events, and symptoms of PTSD and depression. Reports were compared for both time periods, and changed responses were analyzed for significance. Overall, there was consistency in reporting over time; when change occurred it was in the direction of decreased reports at follow-up. This downward trend was not associated with any particular diagnosis. However, PTSD alone, without comorbid symptoms of depression, was uniquely associated with the group that exhibited an upward trend. This implies that increased reporting is related specifically to the presence of PTSD symptoms, and that PTSD may be distinctly associated with the failed extinction of traumatic memories.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Harvard Program in Refugee Trauma, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. rmollica@partners.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17632247

Citation

Mollica, Richard F., et al. "Longitudinal Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Changes in Traumatic Memories Over Time in Bosnian Refugees." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 195, no. 7, 2007, pp. 572-9.
Mollica RF, Caridad KR, Massagli MP. Longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and changes in traumatic memories over time in Bosnian refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195(7):572-9.
Mollica, R. F., Caridad, K. R., & Massagli, M. P. (2007). Longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and changes in traumatic memories over time in Bosnian refugees. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(7), 572-9.
Mollica RF, Caridad KR, Massagli MP. Longitudinal Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Changes in Traumatic Memories Over Time in Bosnian Refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195(7):572-9. PubMed PMID: 17632247.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and changes in traumatic memories over time in Bosnian refugees. AU - Mollica,Richard F, AU - Caridad,Kathleen Rey, AU - Massagli,Michael P, PY - 2007/7/17/pubmed PY - 2007/8/19/medline PY - 2007/7/17/entrez SP - 572 EP - 9 JF - The Journal of nervous and mental disease JO - J Nerv Ment Dis VL - 195 IS - 7 N2 - This longitudinal study examined traumatic memory consistency over a 3-year period among a sample of highly traumatized Bosnian refugees, focusing on demographic factors, types of trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. In 1996 and 1999, 376 Bosnian refugees were interviewed about 54 wartime trauma and torture events, and symptoms of PTSD and depression. Reports were compared for both time periods, and changed responses were analyzed for significance. Overall, there was consistency in reporting over time; when change occurred it was in the direction of decreased reports at follow-up. This downward trend was not associated with any particular diagnosis. However, PTSD alone, without comorbid symptoms of depression, was uniquely associated with the group that exhibited an upward trend. This implies that increased reporting is related specifically to the presence of PTSD symptoms, and that PTSD may be distinctly associated with the failed extinction of traumatic memories. SN - 0022-3018 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17632247/Longitudinal_study_of_posttraumatic_stress_disorder_depression_and_changes_in_traumatic_memories_over_time_in_Bosnian_refugees_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e318093ed2c DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -