Molecular study of microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients from two geographical areas: Niamey, Niger, and Hanoi, Vietnam.J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Sep; 45(9):2999-3002.JC
Microsporidiosis cases due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are emerging opportunistic infections associated with a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. The aim of this study was to specify microsporidial epidemiology in two different geographical areas. From November 2004 to August 2005, 228 and 42 stool samples were collected in Niamey, Niger, and Hanoi, Vietnam, respectively. Screening for microsporidia was performed using UV-light microscopy. Detection was confirmed by molecular biology using two methods specific for E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis. All samples positive for E. bieneusi were subjected to genotyping. In this study, we found high prevalences of microsporidiosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, 10.5% and 9.5%, respectively, in Niamey and Hanoi. These levels of prevalence are similar to those recorded in European countries before highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced. In the samples positive for E. bieneusi, we found seven distinct genotypes, including two genotypes not previously described. The E. bieneusi genotype distributions in the two geographical areas suggest different routes of infection transmission, person-to-person in Niger and zoonotic in Vietnam.